Nursing Management of Cardiovascular Diseases and Doha Declaration Quiz
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Nursing Management of Cardiovascular Diseases and Doha Declaration Quiz

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Questions and Answers

What is the definition of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD)?

Primarily anatomic abnormalities present at birth that result in abnormal cardiac functions

What is the incidence of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD in live births?

4 - 10/100 live births

When does the newborn's heart begin to beat?

At 28 days of gestation

Which condition causes obstruction of blood flow from the ventricle?

<p>Aortic stenosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which heart defect results in increased pulmonary blood flow?

<p>Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Cardiovascular Diseases Management

  • Cardiovascular diseases have a high incidence globally.
  • The causes of cardiovascular diseases are multifaceted.
  • There are various classifications of cardiovascular diseases.

Clinical Manifestation

  • Clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the disease.
  • Patients may present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Diagnostic Tests

  • Diagnostic tests for cardiovascular diseases include electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and cardiac enzymes.
  • Imaging tests such as MRI and CT scans may also be used to diagnose cardiovascular diseases.


  • Management of cardiovascular diseases involves a comprehensive approach including lifestyle modifications, medications, and surgical interventions.
  • The goal of management is to prevent further complications and improve quality of life.

Nursing Care

  • Nursing care for patients with cardiovascular diseases involves providing emotional support, educating patients on lifestyle modifications, and administering medications as prescribed.
  • Nurses play a crucial role in monitoring patients' vital signs and detecting any complications.

Clinical Consequences

  • If left untreated, cardiovascular diseases can lead to serious clinical consequences such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, and even death.
  • Early detection and management are crucial to prevent these consequences.

Doha Declaration and AIDS

  • The Doha Declaration aims to improve access to HIV/AIDS medicines, particularly in Africa.
  • The declaration allows countries to circumvent patents with a compulsory license to produce HIV/AIDS medicines.
  • However, challenges persist, including the lack of infrastructure and opposition from pharmaceutical companies.

WTO and IP

  • The World Trade Organization (WTO) aims to lower trade barriers and provide a platform for trade negotiations between its member countries.
  • WTO membership benefits both developed and developing nations by providing a framework for administration of trade agreements and a forum for negotiations and settling disputes.

Circulation Change at Birth

  • At birth, placental separation and umbilical cord clamping lead to the cessation of placental blood flow.
  • The first breath expands the lungs, causing oxygen to induce pulmonary vasodilation, and infantile circulation begins.

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Test your knowledge on nursing management of cardiovascular diseases and the Doha Declaration. Topics include definitions, causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the implications of the Doha Declaration on AIDS medicines availability.

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