Neurophysiology Basics Quiz

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40 Questions

What is the function of the integrative components of the nervous system?

Receive, store, and process sensory information

Where does the spinal cord carry information from the periphery to?

Skin, joints, muscles, and visceral organs

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle, and glandular secretions?

Motor components

What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) include?

Brain and spinal cord

Where do first-order neurons synapse on second-order neurons?

In relay nuclei in the spinal cord or brain stem

What is the function of interneurons in the relay nuclei?

Process and modify the sensory information received from the first-order neurons

Where do third-order sensory afferent neurons typically reside?

In relay nuclei in the thalamus

What is the receptive field?

The area of the body that changes the firing rate of a sensory neuron when stimulated

How is stimulus intensity encoded?

By the number of receptors that are activated, differences in firing rates of sensory neurons, and activating different types of receptors

What is adaptation of the receptor?

The gradual decrease in the receptor's ability to generate an impulse with continued stimulation

What are phasic mechanoreceptors?

Mechanoreceptors that detect rapid changes in the stimulus or vibrations

What are tonic mechanoreceptors?

Mechanoreceptors that only emit a continuous signal

Where are fourth-order sensory afferent neurons found in the auditory pathway?

In the primary auditory cortex

What is the function of the relay nuclei in the thalamus?

Process the information they receive via local interneurons

What do higher order neurons have in terms of receptive fields?

More complex receptive fields

What happens if a sensory neuron's firing rate decreases?

The receptive field is inhibitory

Where are the autonomic centers that regulate breathing, blood pressure, cardio-regulatory, swallowing, coughing, and vomiting reflexes located?

Medulla

Which part of the brain stem participates in the control of eye movements and contains nuclei of the auditory and visual systems?

Midbrain

What is the main function of the cerebral hemispheres?

Perception

Which part of the brain is involved in the coordination of movement, planning and execution of movement, and maintenance of posture?

Cerebellum

Where does the thalamus process almost all sensory information going to the cerebral cortex?

Thalamus

Which part of the brain contains centers that regulate body temperature, food intake, and water balance?

Hypothalamus

What is the main function of the receptors in the sensory systems?

Convert a stimulus into electrochemical energy

Which type of receptors are activated by light and are involved in vision?

Photoreceptors

Where are the pacinian corpuscles, meissner corpuscles, and baroreceptors located?

Subcutaneous tissue and carotid sinus

Where is the primary afferent neuron usually located?

Dorsal root or spinal cord ganglion

What is the role of the hippocampus in the limbic system?

Involved in memory

Where are the deep nuclei such as basal ganglia and limbic system located?

Cerebral hemispheres

Which part of the nervous system regulates autonomic functions, balance, posture, eye movements, and auditory and visual systems?

Medulla

Which structure is responsible for integrating sensory and motor information for coordination of movement, posture, and head and eye movements?

Cerebellum

Which part of the brain is involved in memory?

Hippocampus

Which structure regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and hormone secretion from the pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

What is the main function of the thalamus in the nervous system?

Processing sensory information to the cerebral cortex

Which part of the brain is responsible for perception, higher motor functions, cognition, memory, and emotion?

Cerebral cortex

What is the main function of the basal ganglia in the nervous system?

Regulating movement through projections to the motor cortex

Which part of the nervous system is involved in regulating emotions and communicating with the autonomic nervous system via the hypothalamus?

Amygdala

What is the function of dendrites in neurons?

Receiving information

What is the role of the spinal cord in the nervous system?

Carrying information from the periphery to the central nervous system

What is the process of converting stimuli into electrochemical energy known as?

Sensory transduction

What are the specialized receptors that receive information from different sensory modalities called?

Sensory receptors

Study Notes

Neural Pathways and Sensory Systems Overview

  • The spinal cord contains descending and ascending pathways related to somatic motor functions, visceral functions, reflexes, and somatosensory functions.
  • The brain stem, consisting of the medulla, pons, and midbrain, regulates autonomic functions, balance, posture, eye movements, and auditory and visual systems.
  • The cerebellum integrates sensory and motor information for coordination of movement, posture, and head and eye movements.
  • The thalamus processes sensory information to the cerebral cortex and motor information from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem and spinal cord.
  • The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and hormone secretion from the pituitary gland.
  • The cerebral hemispheres, including the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system, are responsible for perception, higher motor functions, cognition, memory, and emotion.
  • The basal ganglia receive input from the cerebral cortex and regulate movement through projections to the motor cortex.
  • The hippocampus is involved in memory, while the amygdala regulates emotions and communicates with the autonomic nervous system via the hypothalamus.
  • Neurons have dendrites for receiving information and axons for transmitting information through the nervous system.
  • Sensory systems receive information from specialized receptors and transmit it through neurons and synaptic relays to the central nervous system.
  • Different sensory modalities are detected by various receptors, such as mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors.
  • The conversion of stimuli into electrochemical energy, known as sensory transduction, is mediated through the receptor potential, which increases or decreases the probability of an action potential.

Test your knowledge of neurophysiology with this introductory quiz! Explore topics such as the organization of the nervous system, spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, different parts of the brain, cells of the nervous system, general features of sensory systems, and more. The nervous system is a complex network that allows communication with the environment through its sensory and integrative components.

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