Neuroanatomy: Functions of Nervous System

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115 Questions

Which division of the nervous system is responsible for carrying conscious sensation from the periphery back to the central nervous system?

Somatic nervous system

What is the primary function of the sensory receptors present in the skin and organs?

Respond to external and internal stimuli by generating nerve impulses to travel to the central nervous system

Where are the sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system located?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Which part of the nervous system includes the brain, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Which type of neurons have an axon and multiple dendrites?

Multipolar neurons

What is the counterpart of Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the functional unit of the nervous system?

Reflex arc

Which cells act like macrophages of the CNS?

Microglia

Which cells line the cavities of the CNS?

Ependymal cells

Which type of synapse is the most common?

Axo-dendritic synapse

What does a monosynaptic reflex consist of?

Receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron

What type of neurons are found in cells of spinal ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve?

Unipolar neurons

Which cells are responsible for myelinating tracts?

Oligodendrocytes

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

The brain and retina.

What type of cells are counterparts of Schwann cells of peripheral nerves?

Oligodendrocytes

What do astrocytes provide for the nervous system?

Nutrition

What is the primary function of the axon hillock?

Initiating the nerve impulse

Which type of neuron has a dendrite that branches into a dendritic tree?

Unipolar cells

Which type of synapse is less common in neuronal communication?

Somato-somatic synapse

Where are the dorsal-ventral axes most easily understood?

In animals with a horizontally running spinal cord

What is the counterpart of Oligodendrocytes in the peripheral nerves?

Schwann cells

What is the structure that lines the cavities of the CNS?

Ependymal cells

What is the primary function of Astrocytes in the nervous system?

Support and provide nutrition to neurons

What is the functional unit of the nervous system?

Reflex arc

Which type of neurons have an axon and multiple dendrites?

Multipolar neurons

Which type of neurons are found in dorsal root ganglia and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves?

Pseudounipolar neurons

In the nervous system, which division is responsible for carrying involuntary structures such as internal organs, blood vessels, and glands?

Visceral division

Which structures are responsible for responding to external and internal stimuli by generating nerve impulses that travel to the central nervous system?

Sensory receptors

What are the specific functions of the nervous system according to the provided text?

Motor Output, Integration, Sensory Input

Which division of the nervous system includes nerves carrying conscious sensation from the periphery back to the central nervous system?

Somatic division

Which part of the nervous system combines and sums up all the data received from the body and sends out nerve impulses?

Central Nervous System

Where are sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, and peripheral nerves located in the nervous system?

Peripheral Nervous System

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

Somatic Nervous System

Which specific part of the Central Nervous System is responsible for combining and summing up all received data from the body?

Cerebrum

What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system mentioned in the text?

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

Where do nerve impulses from the central nervous system go to produce muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

Both skeletal and involuntary muscles

What does the peripheral nervous system include?

All nervous structures outside CNS

Which part of the nervous system includes the structures of Cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What is the primary function of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) in the nervous system?

Carries info to and from the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Which type of division of the nervous system includes nerves carrying conscious sensation from the periphery back to the CNS and innervating voluntary muscles?

Somatic Division

What is the specific function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in relation to the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands?

Involuntary control

What type of cells are counterparts of Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves?

Oligodendrocytes

Where are sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system located?

In the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Which type of neurons are found in cells of spinal ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve?

Unipolar neurons

Where do nerve impulses from the central nervous system go to produce muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

To the effector organs

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Brain and retina

What is the primary function of Astrocytes in the nervous system?

Nutrition of the nervous system

What is the functional unit of the nervous system?

Neuron

What does a monosynaptic reflex consist of?

A receptor, a sensory neuron, a motor neuron, and an effector

Which specific part of the Central Nervous System is responsible for combining and summing up all received data from the body?

Diencephalon

Which division of the nervous system is responsible for carrying conscious sensation from the periphery back to the central nervous system?

Somatic Nervous System

Which part of the nervous system includes the brain, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Which division of the nervous system is responsible for controlling involuntary structures such as internal organs, blood vessels, and glands?

Sympathetic nervous system

What is the counterpart of Oligodendrocytes in the peripheral nerves?

Schwann cells

What type of neurons are found in the dorsal root ganglia and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves?

Pseudounipolar neurons

What is the primary function of Astrocytes in the nervous system?

Providing structural support

Where are sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, and peripheral nerves located in the nervous system?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What is the specific function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in relation to the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands?

Involuntary control

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Retina

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Spinal cord

What does a monosynaptic reflex consist of?

A single synapse between sensory and motor neurons

Which type of synapse is less common in neuronal communication?

Dendrodendritic synapse

What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system mentioned in the text?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic division

Where are the dorsal-ventral axes most easily understood?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What is the counterpart of Oligodendrocytes in the peripheral nerves?

Schwann cells

Which type of neurons are found in cells of spinal ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve?

Multipolar neurons

What is the primary function of the sensory receptors present in the skin and organs?

Produce nerve impulses

Where do nerve impulses from the central nervous system go to produce muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

Effector organs

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Brain and retina

What is the structure that lines the cavities of the CNS?

Ependymal cells

Which part of the nervous system combines and sums up all the data received from the body and sends out nerve impulses?

Diencephalon

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Dendro-axonic' synapse

Which division of the nervous system is responsible for carrying sensory input from the periphery back to the central nervous system and innervating voluntary muscles?

Somatic Division

What is the primary function of Oligodendrocytes in the nervous system?

Producing myelin in the central nervous system

Where are the motor endings, ganglia, and peripheral nerves located in the nervous system?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What is the counterpart of Astrocytes in the peripheral nervous system?

Schwann cells

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Retina

What is the primary function of Microglia in the nervous system?

Phagocytosis of microorganisms and debris

'Axo-somatic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Dendro-dendritic' synapse

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Dendro-somatic' synapse

'Axo-axonic' synapse is less common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is most common?

'Axo-somatic' synapse

Which part of the nervous system includes the structures such as cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What is the primary function of Satellite cells in the nervous system?

Support and protect neuron cell bodies

Where do sensory receptors and nerves carry information to and from in the nervous system?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

In the CNS, which of the following describes the ROSTRAL-CAUDAL AXIS?

Runs from nose to tail

What is the primary function of the axon hillock?

Originates the axon (nerve fibre)

Which type of neurons are found in dorsal root ganglia and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves?

Unipolar neurons

What is the counterpart of Oligodendrocytes in the peripheral nerves?

Schwann cells

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Axo-axonal' synapse

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Brain and retina

'Axo-somatic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Axo-axonal' synapse

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Axo-axonal' synapse

What is the primary function of Microglia in the nervous system?

Acts like macrophages of the CNS

What is the primary function of Astrocytes in the nervous system?

Supporting and nourishing neurons

In the CNS, which part is responsible for combining and summing up all the data received from the body and sending out nerve impulses?

Diencephalon

Which type of neurons are found in cells of spinal ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve?

Unipolar neurons

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Axo-axonic' synapse

Where are sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system located?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What is the primary function of the axon hillock?

Integrating incoming signals and generating nerve impulses

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Retina and olfactory epithelium

What is the counterpart of Oligodendrocytes in the peripheral nerves?

Schwann cells

Where are sensory receptors, motor endings, nerves, ganglia, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system located?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Which part of the nervous system is responsible for combining and summing up all received data from the body?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What type of neurons have an axon and multiple dendrites?

Multipolar neurons

What is the specific function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in relation to the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands?

Regulating involuntary activities

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Brain and retina

Which part of the nervous system includes the structures such as cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

What type of cells are counterparts of Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves?

Oligodendrocytes

What is the primary function of Microglia in the nervous system?

Acting like macrophages of the CNS

'Axo-dendritic' synapse is most common in neuronal communication. What kind of synapse is less common?

'Axo-axonal' synapse

'Anaxonic' neurons have no axon and are found in which parts of the body?

Brain and retina

Which type of division of the nervous system includes nerves carrying conscious sensation from the periphery back to the CNS and innervating voluntary muscles?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What is the primary function of the sensory receptors present in the skin and organs?

Produce appropriate responses to changes in environment

Where do nerve impulses from the central nervous system go to produce muscle contractions and gland secretions as responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors?

Effector organs like muscles and glands

Test your knowledge of the functions of the nervous system, including sensory input, integration, and motor output. Explore how sensory receptors, the brain, spinal cord, and nerve impulses contribute to these essential functions.

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