Nephrotic Syndrome Quiz

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Which of the following is a key clinical manifestation of nephrotic syndrome?

Nephrotic-range proteinuria

What is the primary renal abnormality associated with nephrotic syndrome?

Glomerular diseases

Which of the following is a characteristic of nephrotic syndrome?

Hypoalbuminemia

What are the types of febrile seizure?

The types of febrile seizures are simple febrile seizure, complex febrile seizure, febrile status epilepticus, and Febrile infection–related (or refractory) epilepsy (FIRES).

What are the risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures?

The major risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures include age less than 1 year, duration of fever less than 24 hours, and fever ranging from 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F).

What is the definition of febrile seizures?

Febrile seizures are seizures that occur between the ages of 6 and 60 months, with a temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher, not caused by CNS infection or metabolic imbalance, and occur in the absence of a history of prior afebrile seizures.

What is Febrile infection–related epilepsy (FIRES)?

Febrile infection–related epilepsy (FIRES) is a disorder seen in older children, usually males over 5 years old, associated with an encephalitis-like illness but without an identifiable infectious agent. It leads to difficult-to-treat epilepsy.

What is the evaluation and treatment of febrile seizures?

The evaluation and treatment of febrile seizures involve assessing the child's history, performing a physical examination, and conducting tests such as blood work and EEG. Treatment may involve seizure management and addressing the underlying cause of the fever.

Study Notes

Nephrotic Syndrome

  • Key clinical manifestation: severe proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
  • Primary renal abnormality: increased permeability of the glomerular capillaries, leading to excessive loss of protein in the urine

Febrile Seizures

  • Definition: seizures occurring in children between 6 months and 5 years of age, associated with fever but without central nervous system infection or other underlying conditions
  • Types: • Simple febrile seizures: generalized, last less than 15 minutes, and do not recur within 24 hours • Complex febrile seizures: focal, last more than 15 minutes, or recur within 24 hours
  • Risk factors for recurrence: • Family history of febrile seizures • Age at first seizure (younger children are at higher risk) • Temperature at first seizure (higher temperatures are associated with higher risk)
  • Febrile infection–related epilepsy (FIRES): a rare, severe, and refractory epilepsy syndrome triggered by febrile seizures
  • Evaluation and treatment: • Acute management: focus on controlling the seizure, treating the underlying infection, and preventing further seizures • Long-term management: anticonvulsant therapy may be necessary for children with a high risk of recurrence or with complex febrile seizures

Test your knowledge of nephrotic syndrome with this quiz. Explore the clinical manifestations and associated glomerular diseases, focusing on heavy proteinuria.

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