10 Questions
What is the core branch of logic at the heart of natural deduction?
Propositional logic
Which type of inference rule allows us to derive an implication in natural deduction?
Implicationintroduction
What are assumptions in the context of logical proofs?
Temporary propositions
Which connective is used to create more complex propositions in propositional logic?
'Or' (∨)
What is the purpose of implications in natural deduction?
To show that given a certain antecedent, a specific consequent follows
Which proof strategy involves assuming the negation of a proposition to derive a contradiction?
Proof by contradiction
In natural deduction, what is the main goal of using proof by cases?
To prove that each disjunct in a disjunction is true
What is the aim of using implications in constructing proofs?
To demonstrate the logical relationship between antecedents and consequents
Which step involves discharging assumptions in a natural deduction proof?
Concluding the logical argument by eliminating assumptions
What role does the horizontal line play in natural deduction proofs?
It marks implications showing logical relationships
Study Notes
Natural Deduction: Building Logical Arguments
Natural deduction is a formal system for proving statements in logic, with a focus on clearly representing the thought processes behind arguments. This approach, which we'll explore through the lenses of propositional logic, inference rules, assumptions, and proof strategies, promises a natural, intuitive, and easytograsp framework for building logical arguments.
Propositional Logic
At the core of natural deduction lies propositional logic, a branch of logic that deals with the relationships between propositions, or statements that can be true or false. Propositional logic uses connectives such as "and" (∧), "or" (∨), "implies" (→), and "not" (¬) to create more complex propositions from simpler ones.
Inference Rules
Inference rules are the guidelines for reaching logical conclusions based on given premises. There are two main types of inference rules in natural deduction:

Introduction Rules: These allow us to add new information to our proof, such as "∧introduction" to create a conjunction or "→introduction" to derive an implication.

Elimination Rules: These rules help us eliminate information, such as "∧elimination" to separate a conjunction or "→elimination" to prove an implication.
Assumptions and Implications
Assumptions are temporary propositions that we can use within the context of our proof. These assumptions, also known as hypothesis, are marked with a horizontal line, and we must eventually show that they are true or discharge them. Implications are used to show that given a certain condition (antecedent), a specific conclusion (consequent) follows.
Proof Strategies
There are several strategies for constructing proofs in natural deduction, but we'll focus on a few essential ones:

Direct proof: This strategy involves constructing a proof by applying a chain of logical steps, with each step following a valid inference rule.

Proof by contradiction: Also known as reductio ad absurdum, this strategy aims to show that a proposition is true by assuming its negation and then deriving a contradiction, thus proving that the original proposition must be true.

Proof by cases: This strategy is used when a given proposition is a disjunction (∨) and involves proving that each disjunct is true, individually.
Exploring Example Proofs
Let's examine a simple example of a natural deduction proof using propositional logic. We want to prove the proposition P → (Q ∧ R).

Assume P (⊸1: P)

Show Q (⊸2: Q)
a. Assume P → Q (⊸3: P → Q) b. Use (1) and (3) to derive Q by applying →elimination (⊸4: Q)

Show R (⊸5: R)
a. Assume P → R (⊸6: P → R) b. Use (1) and (6) to derive R by applying →elimination (⊸7: R)

Use (2) and (7) to derive Q ∧ R by applying ∧introduction (⊸8: Q ∧ R)

Use (1), (4), and (8) to derive P → (Q ∧ R) by applying →introduction (⊸: P → (Q ∧ R))

Discharge assumptions ⊸1, ⊸3, and ⊸6
That's our proof in natural deduction! This example illustrates the systematic approach that natural deduction provides for constructing logical arguments.
Natural Deduction in Practice
Natural deduction has a wealth of applications, including the analysis of logical arguments and the formalization of computer programming languages. It's also a valuable tool for understanding the structure of arguments and reasoning in everyday life. By exploring natural deduction, we can expand our logical capabilities and improve our ability to think critically and construct valid arguments.
Explore natural deduction, a formal system for proving logical statements using propositional logic, inference rules, assumptions, and proof strategies. Learn about constructing proofs through direct proofs, proof by contradiction, and proof by cases. Dive into example proofs to understand the systematic approach natural deduction offers for building logical arguments.
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