# Molarity Calculation and Unit Conversion Quiz

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## 50 Questions

### What does concentration refer to in chemistry?

The amount of solute in a solution

### How is concentration usually expressed?

Mass per unit volume

Molarity (M)

### How is mass concentration calculated?

Mass of solute/volume of solution

### What does concentration in chemistry refer to?

The amount of a substance in a defined space

### How is concentration defined?

The ratio of solute in a solution to either solvent or total solution

g/cm3, kg/l, M

### What methods can be used to express concentration?

Mass concentration, volume concentration

### Which solutions have a high amount of solute?

Concentrated solutions

### How are concentrated solutions made dilute?

By adding more solvent to the solution

### What makes converting units between volume and mass of solution difficult?

Temperature changes

5 mg/mL

8.802 grams

### How would you convert milligrams per liter to molarity?

Molarity = mg/L / (molecular weight of solute) x 1,000

### How do you calculate the molarity of a solution in moles per liter, given moles and volume in liters?

Divide the volume by the number of moles

0.20 moles

0.033 mol/L

102 mOs

### Which solution has the highest osmolarity?

Potassium phosphate

258 mOsm/L

4000 mOsm/L

1 gram

1388 mOsm/L

111.75 grams

4000 mOsm/L

### What is the normality of a solution with 3 mmol phosphorus and 4 meq sodium in each ml?

$7 N$

142mg

430.38 g/mol

252 mOsm/liter

50g

### What is the main difference between concentrated and dilute solutions?

Concentrated solutions have a high concentration of solute, while dilute solutions have a low concentration of solute

### How can non-volatile solvents be concentrated?

By removing solvent through evaporation or boiling

### What is the purpose of preparing stock solutions?

To allow for better precision in making dilutions

### How is molarity calculated?

By dividing the moles of solute by the volume of the solution in liters

### What is one osmole (Osmol) equivalent to?

One mole of particles that contribute to osmotic pressure

### In the example blood sample, how does Na+ ions contribute to osmolarity?

[Na+] contributes as NaX (where X is a negative ion)

### How can molarity and osmolarity be calculated from mass per unit volume?

By converting mass to moles using molar mass and dividing by the volume in liters

+2 mol

### What is the relationship between molarity and osmolarity for an ionic compound?

[Molarity] = [Osmolarity] * 2

### What is the formula for calculating molarity?

Mass of solute in grams divided by the volume in liters

### How is osmolarity related to the number of osmoles and volume of solution?

Osmolarity is the number of osmoles per liter of solution

5 Osmol/L

### How can osmolarity be calculated from molarity?

Multiply the molarity by the number of osmoles produced by one mole of solute

### What contributes to both molarity and osmolarity calculations for ionic compounds?

The moles of each ion from the compound

### What does molarity represent?

The concentration of a solution in terms of moles of solute per liter of solution

### How does one mole of an ionic compound affect osmolarity?

It increases osmolarity by 2 Osmol/L

### What is used to determine the amount of solute in moles for calculating molarity?

$Moles = \frac{Mass}{Molar Mass}$

### What contributes to the osmolarity calculation for a glucose solution?

$Glucose\ (C_6H_{12}O_6)$ molecules

### Which factor influences both molarity and osmolarity calculations for sodium chloride solutions?

Dissociation into Na$^+$ and Cl$^-$ ions

2 Osmol/L

## Study Notes

• Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. For calculating molarity, convert the volume to liters if it is given in milliliters, and determine the amount of solute in moles using the molar mass. Divide the number of moles of solute by the number of liters of the solution to obtain the molarity.
• Example: For an ammonia solution, the volume is 100 mL, and the mass of ammonia is 5.00 g. The molarity is 2.9 M.
• Osmolarity is the number of osmoles per liter of solution, which is the number of particles contributing to the osmotic pressure. One mole of an ionic compound generates two osmoles.
• For instance, a solution of 1 mol/L of sodium chloride (NaCl) has an osmolarity of 2 Osmol/L.
• To calculate osmolarity from molarity, multiply the molarity by the number of osmoles produced by one mole of solute.
• Example: Blood has a sodium concentration of 0.140 mol/L, glucose concentration of 180 mg/100 mL, and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) concentration of 20 mg/100 mL. The osmolarity of blood can be calculated by adding the contributions of Na+, glucose, and BUN.
• Molarity and osmolarity can be calculated from mass per unit volume. For example, a solution containing 40.0 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) in 1.00 L of solution has a molarity of 1.2 mol/L and an osmolarity of 3.6 mol/L.
• Ionic compounds dissociate into ions, contributing the number of moles of each ion to both molarity and osmolarity calculations. For example, 1 mol of NaCl generates 2 mol of osmotic particles (1 mol of Na+ and 1 mol of Cl-).
• Different solutions, such as calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, dextrose, magnesium sulfate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium phosphate, sodium acetate, and sodium bicarbonate, have various molarities and osmolarities depending on their chemical composition.

Test your knowledge on molarity calculations and unit conversions from milliliters to liters. Understand the steps involved in determining the amount of solute present in a solution in moles when the known amount of solute is in grams.

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