## Questions and Answers

What is the purpose of selecting a material with a large elastic modulus?

To minimize deformation

What type of deformation occurs when the tensile stress reaches sy?

Plastic behavior

What is the unit of measurement for toughness?

J/m^3

What is the relationship between stress and strain in elastic behavior?

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What is the definition of ductility?

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What is the value of the tensile strength (TS) of the given 1045 plain carbon steel?

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What is the condition for bi-axial tension in a stress state?

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What is the formula for engineering strain in the case of tensile strain?

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What is the unit of strain?

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What is the purpose of an extensometer in a stress-strain testing machine?

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What is the type of strain that occurs when a specimen is subjected to a torque?

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What is the condition for hydrostatic compression in a stress state?

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What is the formula for shear strain in terms of the angle of deformation?

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What is the purpose of a stress-strain testing machine?

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What are the units of stress?

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What type of stress occurs when a force is applied tangentially to the surface of a material?

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What is the formula for calculating tensile stress in a material?

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What type of deformation occurs when a material is subjected to a stress that exceeds its elastic limit?

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What is the formula for calculating shear stress in a material?

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What type of stress occurs when a material is subjected to a compressive force?

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What is the relationship between stress and strain in a material?

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What type of deformation occurs when a material is subjected to a twisting force?

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## Study Notes

### Types of Stress

- Bi-axial tension: occurs in pressurized tanks, where both sq and sz are greater than 0
- Hydrostatic compression: occurs in fish under water, where sh is less than 0

### Engineering Strain

- Tensile strain: e = ΔL / Lo, where e is the strain, ΔL is the change in length, and Lo is the original length
- Lateral strain: eL = -ΔL / Lo
- Shear strain: γ = Δx / y = tan(90° - q), where γ is the shear strain, Δx is the change in distance, and y is the original distance

### Stress-Strain Testing

- Typical tensile test machine: consists of an extensometer and a specimen
- Typical tensile specimen: has a working load of 220,000 N, a yield strength of 310 MPa, and an ultimate tensile strength of 565 MPa

### Stress and Strain

- Stress and strain are size-independent measures of load and displacement
- Elastic behavior: reversible behavior often shows a linear relation between stress and strain
- Plastic behavior: permanent deformation occurs when the tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress reaches the yield strength (sy)

### Material Properties

- Toughness: the energy needed to break a unit volume of material
- Ductility: the plastic strain at failure

### Types of Stress and Strain

- Tensile stress: s = Ft / Ao, where s is the tensile stress, Ft is the force, and Ao is the original area
- Shear stress: t = Ft / Ao, where t is the shear stress, Ft is the force, and Ao is the original area
- Linear elastic behavior: occurs when stress is proportional to strain
- Plastic behavior: occurs when the stress-strain curve is non-linear

### Common States of Stress

- Simple tension: occurs in cables, where F is the force and Ao is the cross-sectional area
- Torsion (a form of shear): occurs in drive shafts, where M is the moment, Ac is the cross-sectional area, and R is the radius
- Simple compression: occurs in structures, where F is the force and Ao is the cross-sectional area

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## Description

This quiz covers other common stress states, including bi-axial tension and hydrostatic compression, with examples of pressurized tanks and fish under water. It also touches on engineering strain and tensile strain.