Mechanical Properties and Behavior of Materials

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77 Questions

What is the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain within the elastic range called?

Poisson's ratio

Which property refers to the resistance of a material to permanent deformation?

Resilience

What is the measure of the amount of energy necessary to cause fracture called?

Toughness

Which test is used to determine the impact strength of a material?

Impact test

What causes tiny cracks to be generated within a material's structure with repeated application of small stress?

Fatigue

What are mechanical properties?

Physical properties describing the behavior of materials under load

What is the average biting force of a person with natural teeth?

77 kg

What is stress in relation to an external applied force?

Equal in intensity and opposite in direction to the applied force

What is the unit for measuring force?

Kilogram

What do mechanical properties of a solid depend on?

Nature and strength of its atomic binding forces

What is the equation for stress?

Stress = (force / area)

Which type of stress occurs when a load tends to cause elongation or stretching in a body?

Tensile stress

What is the modulus of elasticity?

A measure of rigidity or stiffness

What is the proportional limit?

The greatest stress that a material can sustain without deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain

What is Poisson's Ratio?

The reduction in cross section as a material elongates

Which type of hardness test involves the use of an indenter in the shape of a ball, pyramid, or cone?

Brinell hardness test

Which hardness test is suitable for measuring the hardness of small areas and very hard materials, such as gold castings and tooth structure?

Vickers hardness test

Which hardness test was developed to fulfill the need for a microindentation test and can test the hardness of elastic materials without fracture?

Knoop hardness test

Which type of dental restoration may creep and lose its marginal adaptation under occlusal stress?

Dental amalgam

What is the resistance of a material to scratching, indentation, or penetration called?

Hardness

What is the measure of the amount of energy necessary to cause fracture called?

Fracture toughness

Which type of test is used to determine the impact strength of a material?

Impact test

What is the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain within the elastic range called?

Poisson's ratio

Which property refers to the resistance of a material to permanent deformation?

Ductility

What causes tiny cracks to be generated within a material's structure with repeated application of small stress?

Fatigue strength

What is the term for the force per unit area?

Stress

What is the term for the internal resisting force that resists elongation or stretching in a body?

Tensile stress

What is the term for the maximum stress that a material can sustain without deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain?

Yield strength

What is the measure of the total amount of elastic strain in a material?

Flexibility

What is the term for the constant relation between stress and strain?

Modulus of elasticity

Which type of hardness test involves the use of an indenter in the shape of a blunt-point that tapers to a cylinder?

Shore hardness test

In which hardness test is a hardened steel ball of special diameter pressed into a polished surface of a material under a specific load?

Brinell hardness test

Which hardness tester uses a diamond square-based pyramid cone for measuring the hardness of small areas and very hard materials such as gold castings and tooth structure?

Vickers hardness test

Which type of dental restoration may lose its marginal adaptation due to creep under occlusal stress?

Amalgam fillings

Which stage of creep involves a transient or primary creep that tends to have a large effect?

Transient or primary creep

What is the average biting force of a person with natural teeth on the posterior part of the mouth?

Approximately 1925 kg/cm2

What is the unit for measuring force?

Newton

What is Poisson's Ratio?

The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain within the elastic range

Which type of stress occurs when a load tends to cause elongation or stretching in a body?

Tensile stress

What is the proportional limit?

The point beyond which the material will not return to its original shape when the load is released

What is the chemical reaction by which polymers are formed from monomers called?

Polymerization

Which type of polymers are produced in the laboratory by chemical reactions?

Synthetic Polymers

What are proteins, polyamides, and polyisoprenes examples of?

Natural Polymers

What is the smallest repeating unit in a polymer called?

Monomer

Which type of polymers can be produced for medical use, such as dialysis and oxygenator membranes?

Synthetic Polymers

Agar, cellulose, and DNA are examples of which type of polymers?

Natural Polymers

What is the classification of polymers based on the spatial polymerization reaction called?

Spatial Polymerization

What is the classification of polymers based on thermal polymerization reaction called?

Thermal Spatial

Which type of polymer can be reshaped by heat and maintains its shape after cooling, with polymer chains bonded by secondary bonds?

Thermoplastic polymer

What type of polymer forms a network with cross-links and cannot be remelted or reformed into another shape?

Thermosetting polymer

Which type of polymer chain shows higher strength, hardness, and less water sorption compared to linear polymers?

Branched polymer

In which type of polymerization does the reaction occur between two molecules to form a larger molecule without the elimination of a smaller molecule?

Addition polymerization

What is the substance most commonly used to generate free radicals before the initiation stage of addition polymerization?

Benzoyl peroxide

Which stage of addition polymerization involves the chain reaction continuing with the evolution of heat until all the monomer has been changed to a polymer?

Propagation

What factor is associated with polymerization and results in a strong exothermic reaction due to breaking of bonds?

Evolution of heat

What term refers to an impurity in the monomer that can react with free radicals and inhibit or retard the polymerization reaction?

Inhibitor

What property is characterized by increased strength, hardness, brittleness, and stiffness in longer chains and higher molecular weight polymers?

Degree of polymerization property

Which factor affects the properties of polymers by influencing the number of branches and the cross-links between polymer chains?

Degree of polymerization

What is the term for the internal resisting force that resists elongation or stretching in a body?

Modulus of elasticity

Which type of polymer forms a network with cross-links and cannot be remelted or reformed into another shape?

Thermosetting polymer

What term refers to an impurity in the monomer that can react with free radicals and inhibit or retard the polymerization reaction?

Inhibitor

Which factor affects the properties of polymers by influencing the number of branches and the cross-links between polymer chains?

Molecular weight

What is the classification of polymers based on thermal polymerization reaction called?

Thermosetting polymers

In which type of polymerization does the reaction occur between two molecules to form a larger molecule without the elimination of a smaller molecule?

Condensation polymerization

What is the resistance of a material to scratching, indentation, or penetration called?

Hardness

What is the measure of the amount of energy necessary to cause fracture called?

Fracture toughness

What is the term for the maximum stress that a material can sustain without deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain?

Proportional limit

What is the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain within the elastic range called?

Poisson's Ratio

What is the classification of polymers based on the spatial polymerization reaction called?

Thermosetting polymers

What is the term for the internal resisting force that resists elongation or stretching in a body?

Proportional Limit

Which type of polymer chain shows higher strength, hardness, and less water sorption compared to linear polymers?

Branched polymers

What is the term for the constant relation between stress and strain?

Elastic Modulus

What is the measure of the total amount of elastic strain in a material?

Resilience

Which type of test is suitable for measuring the hardness of small areas and very hard materials, such as gold castings and tooth structure?

Knoop Hardness Test

What is the term for an impurity in the monomer that can react with free radicals and inhibit or retard the polymerization reaction?

Polymerization Inhibitor

What is the measure of the amount of energy necessary to cause fracture called?

Toughness

What is the classification of polymers based on thermal polymerization reaction called?

Addition polymerization

Test your knowledge of mechanical properties and behavior of materials with this quiz covering topics such as compressive loading, Poisson's ratio, ductility, and malleability.

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