# Measurement and Standard Units Quiz

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## 12 Questions

### Which of the following is an example of using null methods of measurement?

Measuring weight with a balance

### What is the approach in indirect measurement methods?

Establishing empirical relations

### What is the purpose of null methods of measurement?

To compare the unknown quantity with a known quantity

### How does indirect measurement work in the context of eliminating bacteria from a fluid?

By measuring the temperature of the fluid

### In what way do comparison methods differ from null methods in measurement?

Null methods eliminate the action of unknown quantity by a known counter quantity

### Why are indirect measurement methods preferred for difficult-to-measure parameters?

They establish an empirical relation with easily measurable related parameters

### What is the primary purpose of measurement?

To express the value of an unknown quantity in terms of a standard unit

Both A and B

### What is a measuring instrument?

A device used to compare an unknown quantity with a standard unit

### In direct measurement methods, how is the unknown quantity measured?

By directly measuring the unknown quantity itself

### What is the purpose of the deflection method?

To directly indicate the value of the unknown quantity

### What are the different types of comparison methods mentioned in the text?

Null methods and differential methods

## Study Notes

### Measurement Basics

• Measurement is a quantitative comparison between a given quantity and a standard unit of the same kind.
• The result of measurement is expressed by a pointer deflection over a predefined scale or a number representing the ratio between the unknown quantity and the standard.
• A standard is defined as the physical personification of the unit of measurement or its submultiple or multiple values.

### Direct Measurement Methods

• Direct measurement methods involve measuring the unknown quantity directly without comparing it with a standard.
• Examples include measurement of weight by a balance, measurement of resistance, capacitance, and inductance by bridge circuits.

### Comparison Methods

• Comparison methods involve direct comparison of the unknown quantity with a standard of the same kind.
• Examples include measurement of e.m.f by comparison with the e.m.f of a standard cell.

### Null Method

• In the null method, the action of the unknown quantity upon the instrument is reduced to zero by the counter action of a known quantity of the same kind.

### Differential Method

• In the differential method, the quantity to be measured is compared with a known quantity and the difference between these two is made zero.

### Indirect Measurement Methods

• Indirect measurement methods involve comparing the unknown quantity with a standard using a calibrated system.
• These methods are used when the desired parameter to be measured is difficult to measure directly, but has a relation with another parameter that can be easily measured.
• Example: measuring bacteria elimination by measuring the temperature of the fluid, as the elimination is directly dependent upon the temperature.

### Deflection Method

• In the deflection method, the value of the unknown quantity is directly indicated by the deflection of a pointer on a calibrated scale.

Test your knowledge on measurement, standard units, and devices used for comparison. Understand the concept of expressing measurement results via pointer deflection or numerical ratios.

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