## Questions and Answers

What is the smallest nonzero degree measurement of an angle?

1°

How many possible cases are there when solving systems of linear equations?

Four

What branch of mathematics deals with the study of numbers and their properties?

Arithmetic

In geometry, what is the term used for the intersection of two lines or sides of planes?

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What technique, among others, is required when solving systems of linear equations?

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## Study Notes

## Maths

Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantities, structure, space, and change. It has no limits and its reach is limitless. Mathematical concepts can be applied to everyday life situations such as counting, measuring, budgeting, and problem solving. There are various branches of mathematics, each with their own unique set of principles and applications. Some common mathematical fields include algebra, geometry, arithmetic, statistics, trigonometry, calculus, and topology.

### Algebra

Algebra is one of the main branches of mathematics, dealing with abstract relationships between symbols and expressions. It involves the manipulation of variables within equations, and it forms the basis for solving problems involving unknown values. Algebraic equations allow us to represent real-world situations mathematically and find solutions to those problems through formal reasoning and calculations.

#### Linear Equations

Linear equations are a type of equation where the highest power of the variable is 1. They have exactly one solution, which can be found using the substitution method or elimination method. Examples of linear equations include (x+3=5) and (y-2=7). These equations have one solution each because they represent a single straight line on a graph.

#### Systems of Linear Equations

A system of linear equations consists of two or more linear equations with several variables. Solving systems of linear equations allows us to determine multiple solutions for systems with two variables, called coordinate pairs, and infinite solutions for systems with three or more variables. For example, the system of equations with two variables given by [ \begin{cases} x + y = 9 \ x - y = 6 \end{cases} ] has infinitely many solutions. In general, there are four possible cases when solving systems of linear equations:

- No solutions exist.
- One solution exists, which represents a point on the graph.
- Infinitely many solutions exist, representing a line on the graph.
- An empty graph, meaning all solutions are impossible.

Solving systems of linear equations requires knowledge of properties of matrices, determinants, and Cramer's rule, among other techniques.

### Geometry

Geometry originates from ancient Greek culture and deals with points, lines, angles, shapes, surface areas, volumes, and transformational properties. It focuses on the study of spatial properties of objects. Common geometric figures include points, lines, line segments, rays, angles, triangles, squares, rectangles, circles, ellipses, parabolas, hyperbolas, and conic sections.

#### Angles

An angle is formed by the intersection of two lines or sides of planes. Angle measures range from 0° to 180°, with 0° being a straight angle and 180° being a right angle. We can measure angles in degrees or radians. A circle contains 360 degrees, so dividing it into 180 parts gives us the smallest nonzero degree, which is 1°. Angles greater than 180° are expressed in terms of radians, where π radians equal 180°.

### Arithmetic

Arithmetic, also known as number theory, is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numbers and their properties. It involves basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Arithmetic has applications in various fields, including science, engineering, and finance.

#### Factoring

Factorization involves breaking down a number into its simplest form, often using the factors of the number. For example, the polynomial (x^2 - 5x + 6) can be factored as ((x - 2)(x - 3)). Factoring is a crucial skill in mathematics, as it allows us to find the roots and factors of equations, and to understand the structure of numbers.

### Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics that deals with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It involves using probability theory and statistical inference to analyze data and make predictions. Statisticians use statistical methods to identify patterns and trends in data, and to make informed decisions based on the data.

#### Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine whether a hypothesis about a population parameter is supported by the data. It involves setting up a null hypothesis (H0) and an alternative hypothesis (H1), and then using statistical tests, such as the t-test or chi-square test, to evaluate the evidence against each hypothesis. The results of the test will either support the null hypothesis, reject the null hypothesis, or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

### Trigonometry

Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the angles and sides of triangles. It involves the study of functions that relate the sides and angles of triangles. Some common trigonometric functions include sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan), cotangent (cot), secant (sec), and cosecant (csc).

#### Sine and Cosine

The sine (sin) and cosine (cos) functions are used to find the ratios of the sides of a right triangle, given its angles. The sine function represents the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse, while the cosine function represents the ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the hypotenuse. These functions have applications in physics, engineering, and computer graphics, among other fields.

### Calculus

Calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of rates of change and the accumulation of quantities. It involves the study of functions, limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. Calculus has applications in physics, engineering, economics, computer science, and many other fields.

#### Derivatives

Derivatives are used to find the rate of change of a function with respect to its input variable. They allow us to determine the instantaneous rate of change at a given point and to analyze the behavior of functions over small intervals. Examples of derivative concepts include limit laws, differentiation rules, and optimization techniques.

### Topology

Topology is a branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of shapes and spaces that remain unchanged under continuous transformations. It involves studying the connections between points, curves, surfaces, and

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