Questions and Answers
What is the basis for Col(A)?
A basis for Col(A) is given by the pivot columns of A.
Col(A) is equal to Col(U).
False
What does the RankNullity Theorem state about a matrix A?
dim Col(A) = r, dim Nul(A) = n  r, dim Col(A) + dim Nul(A) = n.
What is the rank of a matrix A?
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What is the row space of matrix A?
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What is the left null space of A?
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Why is it called the 'left' null space?
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The row space is preserved by elementary row operations.
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Col(A^T) is equal to Col(U^T).
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What does the Fundamental Theorem of Linear Algebra state about a matrix A?
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Rank(A) is equal to Rank(A^T).
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What is a linear equation?
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What is a system of linear equations?
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What is the solution of a linear system?
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What is the solution set of a linear system?
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What does it mean if a linear system is singular?
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What does nonsingular mean in the context of linear systems?
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When is a linear combination defined?
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A linear system has either a unique solution, no solution, or infinitely many solutions.
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What is echelon form?
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Each matrix is rowequivalent to one and only one reduced echelon matrix.
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What characterizes a pivot position?
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The column space of a matrix A is a subspace of which space?
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What does it mean if vectors are linearly independent?
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If two vectors are linearly dependent, one must be a scalar multiple of the other.
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What is the null space of a matrix A?
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If Ax = b has a solution, then the null space Nul(A) is guaranteed to contain nonzero vectors.
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What is the dimension of a vector space V?
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Study Notes
Linear Equations and Systems
 A linear equation is in the form ax₁ + ... + axₙ = b, involving constants a₁...aₙ and variables x₁...xₙ.
 A system of linear equations consists of one or more linear equations using the same variables.
 A solution for a linear system is a set of values (s₁, s₂,..., sₙ) that make each equation true when substituted for the variables.
 The solution set is the total collection of all possible solutions to a linear system.
Types of Solutions
 Linear systems can have one unique solution, no solutions, or infinitely many solutions.
 A system is called singular if it does not have a unique solution, meaning it has either no solution or infinitely many solutions.
 A nonsingular system has a unique solution.
Row Operations and Matrix Forms
 Two systems of linear equations are equivalent if they share the same solution set.

Elementary row operations include:
 Replacement: Adding a multiple of one row to another.
 Interchange: Swapping two rows.
 Scaling: Multiplying all entries of a row by a nonzero constant.
 Two matrices are row equivalent if one can be transformed into the other through a series of row operations.
Echelon and Reduced Echelon Forms
 A matrix in Echelon Form respects specific rules, such as having all nonzero rows above zero rows and leading entries (first nonzero numbers of the rows) positioned to the right of the leading entries in the rows above.
 Each matrix is rowequivalent to one unique reduced echelon form, ensuring the uniqueness of the reduced echelon form for each matrix.
Solutions in Echelon Forms
 A system defined by a matrix in Echelon Form is beneficial for identifying pivots (leading entry positions).
 Pivot columns contain pivot positions and correspond to pivot variables that help generate the general solution of the linear system.
Consistency and Uniqueness
 A system is consistent if its augmented matrix contains no rows of the form [0... 0  b] where b is nonzero.
 A consistent system may yield either a unique solution (if no free variables are present) or infinitely many solutions (if at least one free variable exists).
Vector Spaces and Subspaces
 A vector space is a collection of elements with properties allowing for vector addition and scalar multiplication.
 A subspace is a subset of a vector space that includes the zero vector and is closed under both addition and scalar multiplication.
Null Space and Column Space
 The null space of a matrix A (Nul(A)) encompasses all solutions to the equation Ax = 0.
 The column space, Col(A), represents all linear combinations of the matrix's columns and is a subspace of R^m.
Rank and Dimension
 Rank indicates the number of pivot columns in a matrix, corresponding to the dimension of the column space, dim Col(A).
 The RankNullity Theorem states that for an m × n matrix A with rank r, the dimension of the null space is n  r.
Basis and Linear Dependence
 A basis for a vector space V is a linearly independent set of vectors that spans V.
 Vectors are linearly independent if the equation involving them equals zero only with all coefficients as zero. Conversely, they are linearly dependent if such coefficients exist.
Fundamental Concepts
 Elementary matrices derived from row operations on identity matrices are always invertible.
 The transpose of a product of matrices follows (AB)ᵀ = BᵀAᵀ, while symmetric matrices satisfy A = Aᵀ.
 The left null space (Nul(Aᵀ)) is defined as the solutions to Aᵀx = 0.
 Any relation for the columns of matrix U (Echelon Form) also holds for the corresponding columns of A, asserting the connection and equivalence across matrix representations.
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Description
This quiz consists of flashcards covering essential concepts of linear algebra from the Math415 course at UIUC. Explore definitions and examples of linear equations, systems of equations, and solutions to bolster your understanding of the subject. Perfect for final exam preparation!