Meiosis and Mitosis
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Meiosis and Mitosis

Test your knowledge of the meiosis process and its phases with this quiz! Learn about the production of gamete cells, the division from diploid to haploid chromosomes, and the potential errors that can lead to an abnormal number of chromosomes.

Created by
@BrilliantVibrance

Questions and Answers

Which phase of the cell cycle is characterized by the synthesis and duplication of DNA?

S phase

What is the function of the G0 phase in the cell cycle?

To stop dividing

During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids separate and move towards the poles of the cell?

Anaphase

What is the role of cohesin in cell division?

<p>To hold chromatids together until anaphase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during telophase of mitosis?

<p>The sister chromatids separate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of cytokinesis in cell division?

<p>To split the cell into two daughter cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

During meiosis, which phase is responsible for the formation of bivalents?

<p>Prophase I</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main source of genetic variation between generations during meiosis?

<p>Chromosomal crossover</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of meiosis is responsible for the separation of homologous chromosomes?

<p>Anaphase I</p> Signup and view all the answers

What occurs during telophase I of meiosis?

<p>New nuclear membrane surrounds each haploid set</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of meiosis is more similar to mitosis?

<p>Meiosis II</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can result from non-disjunction during meiosis?

<p>Chromosomal aneuploidy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins are most important in regulating the cell cycle at the molecular level?

<p>Cyclins, CDKs, CDKIs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins bind to CDKs and regulate their ability to phosphorylate other proteins that control cell division?

<p>Cyclins, CDKs, CDKIs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins primarily act to block the entry into the cell cycle and the G1/S transition?

<p>Cyclin E/CDK</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which protein is a tumor suppressor that is generally switched on by p53/p21 and switched off by cyclin E/CDK?

<p>Retinoblastoma protein (Rb)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of drugs disrupts the cell cycle at different stages and includes traditional chemotherapy drugs and selective drugs that target essential proteins for cell growth?

<p>Anti-mitotics</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group of drugs that block mitosis actually work on the mitotic spindle and inhibit its assembly?

<p>Anti-mitotics</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins are targeted by CDK inhibitors interfering with G1/S and Aurora kinase inhibitors interfering with centriole/centrosome function?

<p>Mitotic kinases</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of the cell cycle is responsible for the synthesis and duplication of DNA?

<p>Interphase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of meiosis is responsible for the separation of homologous chromosomes?

<p>Anaphase I</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of cytokinesis in cell division?

<p>To divide the cytoplasm between the two daughter cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of mitosis is characterized by the alignment of chromosomes at the equatorial plate?

<p>Metaphase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cell division is responsible for the formation of gametes?

<p>Meiosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of genes in coordinating the cell cycle?

<p>To regulate the timing and progression of the cell cycle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of the cell cycle is responsible for DNA replication?

<p>S phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of mitosis?

<p>Cell repair/replacement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between haploid and diploid cells?

<p>Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes compared to diploid cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are chromatids?

<p>Thread-like strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of genes in coordinating the cell cycle?

<p>To regulate the timing of each phase of the cell cycle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase of the cell cycle is responsible for dividing the cytoplasm between two daughter cells?

<p>Cytokinesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

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