Maryland State Envirothon Wildlife Study Guide
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Maryland State Envirothon Wildlife Study Guide

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Questions and Answers

What aspect of wildlife ecology focuses on the various interactions between different species in an ecosystem?

Food Chains and Food Webs

Which of the following is a key factor in wildlife conservation that refers to the maximum number of individuals in a population that an environment can sustain?

Carrying Capacity

Which term refers to the variety of different species in a particular area or ecosystem?

Biodiversity

In the context of wildlife identification, which group includes animals like foxes, deer, and raccoons?

<p>Mammal Identification</p> Signup and view all the answers

What aspect of wildlife management focuses on controlling or eradicating non-native species that can harm local ecosystems?

<p>Exotic and Invasive Species</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are two of the greatest threats to biodiversity mentioned in the text?

<p>Habitat destruction and invasive species</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is habitat management essential for wildlife?

<p>To maximize the amount of wildlife in an area</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some of the concepts covered in the section about wildlife management for Maryland State Envirothon participants?

<p>Habitat management and carrying capacity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it important to understand basic concepts about habitat for evaluating wildlife habitat?

<p>To make informed management recommendations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What tool is mentioned in the text as a wildlife management tool?

<p>Hunting and trapping</p> Signup and view all the answers

What term is used to describe the addition of a number of young individuals to an adult population of breeders?

<p>Recruitment</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following diseases affects the central nervous system of warm-blooded animals?

<p>Rabies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What term is used to describe the continuing yield of a biological resource by controlled periodic harvesting?

<p>Sustained yield</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following does taxonomy focus on?

<p>Taxonomy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'species richness' refer to in the context of wildlife ecology?

<p>Number of wildlife species found in a given area</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of a Certificate of Competency in Firearms and Hunting Safety in Maryland?

<p>To purchase a hunting license</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used for species that have been introduced into new areas and can sometimes limit biodiversity?

<p>Invasive species</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary responsibility of wildlife biologists?

<p>Balancing the needs of the public with those of wildlife</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which document provides information on hunting regulations, seasons, and public hunting lands?

<p>Guide to Hunting and Trapping</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes an exotic species from an invasive species?

<p>Not all exotic species are considered invasive, but all invasive species are exotic.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mission of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)?

<p>Conserving and restoring wildlife habitat in the U.S.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What assumption is crucial for the accuracy of mark-recapture estimates?

<p>Each individual in the population has an equal chance of being caught</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which agency distributes funds to state fish and wildlife agencies for management?

<p>United States Fish and Wildlife Service</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of the Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Service?

<p>Conserving native wildlife and plants in Maryland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where does the USFWS fall under in terms of the U.S. government structure?

<p>U.S. Department of the Interior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the 4 key features to pay attention to when identifying birds?

<p>Size &amp; shape, color pattern, behavior, and habitat</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group is the Maryland Envirothon using for bird identification?

<p>Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Birds (6th edition)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is included under the term 'wildlife' in the text?

<p>Birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are the species groupings found in the guide mentioned in the text?

<p>Plates on page vii</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is essential for studying wildlife according to the text?

<p>Field guides and keys</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it important to check species ranges and read accounts of similar species before concluding on identification?

<p>To avoid misidentifying juvenile turtles and snakes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What key information is provided on the bottom of the left-hand pages in the species account pages?

<p>Common names for reptile and amphibian families</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the concept of Wildlife Ecology focus on?

<p>The interrelationships of wildlife with their environment and other species</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which section of the study guide is designed as an introduction to Wildlife Ecology for the Maryland State Envirothon?

<p>Section highlighting Wildlife Ecology concepts</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of wildlife, what does 'habitat' refer to?

<p>The natural environment in which a particular species lives</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the species account pages provide information on at the end of each major group?

<p>Habitat and reproduction details</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it crucial to consider reading accounts of similar species before concluding on identification?

<p>To avoid misidentifying different stages of certain animals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Wildlife Ecology focus on studying?

<p>The interrelationship between wildlife, other species, and their environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an important consideration when identifying wildlife species according to the text?

<p>To check ranges and read accounts of similar species</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Wildlife Study Guide

  • Population dynamics refers to the factors that regulate population levels, including natality, productivity, and mortality.
  • Primary consumers are organisms that feed on plants and/or other producers.
  • Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system of warm-blooded animals.
  • Ranavirus is a DNA-based virus that impacts cold-blooded animals.
  • Recruitment refers to the addition of young to an adult population of breeders.
  • Riparian areas are the areas of influence between upland habitats and aquatic habitats.
  • SAV (submerged aquatic vegetation) refers to vascular plants that live and grow completely underwater.
  • Scat refers to the excrement droppings of an animal.
  • Secondary consumers are organisms that eat primary consumers.
  • Small game refers to a management classification that includes eastern cottontail rabbits, squirrels, quail, ruffed grouse, pheasant, and crow.
  • Species refers to populations of animals that possess common characteristics and can freely interbreed in nature to produce fertile offspring.
  • Species diversity refers to the combination of species richness and species abundance in a given area.
  • Species richness refers to the number of wildlife species found in a given area.
  • Strata refer to groupings of vegetation based on height of plants.
  • Sustained yield refers to the continuing yield of a biological resource, such as timber, by controlled periodic harvesting.
  • Taxonomy is the science of the classification of animals or plants.
  • Tertiary consumer refers to an animal that eats secondary consumers.
  • Threatened refers to any species that are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
  • Torpor refers to a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually characterized by a reduced body temperature and rate of metabolism.
  • Trophic level refers to a feeding level in the food chain of an ecosystem characterized by organisms that occupy a similar functional position.
  • Vector refers to an organism that transmits a pathogen from a reservoir to a host.
  • Ventral refers to the lower surface of an organism.
  • Vernal pool refers to a seasonal or temporary wetland.
  • Waterfowl refers to water birds, usually referring to ducks, geese, and swans.
  • Wildlife refers to all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms.
  • Wildlife population dynamics refers to the study of factors and their interactions that control or influence the growth, stability, and decline of wildlife.
  • White-nose Syndrome is a fungal disease that causes bats to rouse too frequently from torpor and starve to death through excessive activity.
  • Zoonotic refers to an infectious disease that is transmitted between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals to humans or from humans to other animals.

Wildlife Identification

  • Identifying wildlife and wildlife signs using keys and/or field guides is essential for studying wildlife.
  • Wildlife encompasses any free-ranging, non-domestic animal, including invertebrates and fish.
  • Bird identification involves paying attention to size and shape, color pattern, behavior, and habitat.
  • The Maryland Envirothon uses the Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Birds (6th edition) for bird identification.
  • Field guides are grouped by plates that correspond to species groupings, such as geese, swans, and ducks.

Wildlife Ecology

  • Wildlife ecology is a branch of science dealing with the interrelationships of wildlife with their own species, with other species, and with their nonliving environment.
  • Habitat refers to the natural environment in which an organism lives.
  • Plant succession and its effect on wildlife refer to the changes in vegetation over time and their impact on wildlife.
  • Edges and contrast refer to the boundaries between different habitats and the resulting changes in wildlife communities.
  • Food chains and food webs refer to the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
  • Communities and ecosystems refer to the interacting populations of organisms and their environments.
  • Species richness and diversity refer to the number of species and their relative abundance in a given area.
  • Natural selection and adaptations refer to the process of evolution and the resulting traits that enable organisms to survive and reproduce.
  • Biodiversity refers to the variety of ecosystems, species, and genes within an area.

Conservation and Management of Wildlife

  • Habitat management involves altering the environment to maximize the amount of wildlife using an area or to increase focal species.
  • Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation refer to the destruction, breaking up, or degradation of habitats, leading to population decline and extinction.
  • Carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms that an ecosystem can support.
  • Wildlife population management and strategies involve controlling population sizes to maintain ecological balance.
  • Federal and state roles for managing wildlife involve enacting laws, protecting endangered species, managing migratory birds, and distributing funds to state agencies for management.

Wildlife and Society

  • Exotic and invasive species refer to non-native species that can pose biological, economic, or human-health related harm.
  • Rare, threatened, and endangered species refer to species that are at risk of extinction due to habitat loss, hunting, and other human activities.
  • Wildlife diseases refer to illnesses that affect wildlife populations, such as rabies and ranavirus.
  • Wildlife legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern human-wildlife interactions, such as hunting and conservation.

Glossary

  • Ecosystem biodiversity refers to the variety of habitats, biological communities, and ecological processes within an ecosystem.

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Description

Learn about wildlife ecology, management, and legislation affecting wildlife in Maryland with this comprehensive study guide. Topics covered include wildlife identification, habitat, plant succession, food chains, and legislation.

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