## 15 Questions

How many components do both longitude and latitude have?

Three components

How many minutes are in 1 degree for longitude and latitude?

60 minutes

How many seconds are in 1 minute for longitude and latitude?

60 seconds

What is the latitude of the National Geographic Society in decimal form?

38.916667

What is the longitude of the National Geographic Society in decimal form?

77.266667

What type of projection is used to transfer longitude and latitude onto an x-y coordinate plane?

Cartesian projection

How are longitude and latitude represented on the Cartesian coordinate plane?

Longitude on x-axis, Latitude on y-axis

What is the Cartesian coordinate plane projection of the National Geographic Society?

(77.267, 38.916)

What is the purpose of the geographic coordinate system?

To accurately locate points on a three-dimensional sphere

In the geographic coordinate system, what does latitude measure?

Distance north or south from the equator in degrees

What does longitude indicate in the geographic coordinate system?

How far east or west a point is from the prime meridian in degrees

Why is it impossible to create a perfectly flat map of the earth without gaps or tears?

Because the earth is a three-dimensional sphere and maps are two-dimensional

What is the maximum value for longitude in the geographic coordinate system?

180 degrees

In the context of the geographic coordinate system, what does the equator represent?

The horizontal reference line for measuring latitude

How does the geographic coordinate system account for the curvature of the earth?

By using longitude and latitude given in degrees

## Study Notes

### Geographic Coordinate System

- Both longitude and latitude have 3 components: degrees, minutes, and seconds.

### Conversion Factors

- 1 degree is equal to 60 minutes for both longitude and latitude.
- 1 minute is equal to 60 seconds for both longitude and latitude.

### National Geographic Society Coordinates

- The latitude of the National Geographic Society is 38.8953° in decimal form.
- The longitude of the National Geographic Society is -77.0365° in decimal form.

### Coordinate Plane Projection

- The Mercator projection is used to transfer longitude and latitude onto an x-y coordinate plane.
- On the Cartesian coordinate plane, longitude is represented on the x-axis and latitude is represented on the y-axis.
- The Cartesian coordinate plane projection of the National Geographic Society is (x, y) = (-77.0365, 38.8953).

### Purpose and Function

- The purpose of the geographic coordinate system is to provide a unique set of coordinates to identify any location on the Earth's surface.
- Latitude measures the distance north or south of the equator, ranging from 0° to 90° in both directions.
- Longitude indicates the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° to 180° in both directions.

### Map Projection Challenges

- It is impossible to create a perfectly flat map of the earth without gaps or tears because the Earth is a sphere, and a sphere cannot be projected onto a flat surface without distortion.

### Geographic Coordinate System Properties

- The maximum value for longitude is 180°.
- The equator represents 0° latitude.
- The geographic coordinate system accounts for the curvature of the earth by using a 3D coordinate system to define locations on the Earth's surface.

Test your knowledge of map projections and the challenges of representing the spherical Earth on flat maps in this quiz. Explore different methods of flattening the Earth and understand the distortions that can occur in map projections.

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