# Logical Fallacies Quiz

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## 10 Questions

### What fallacy is committed when someone presents only two choices when more exist?

Middle ground fallacy

### Which fallacy involves introducing irrelevant information to distract from the main issue?

Red herring fallacy

### What is the belief in streaks of good or bad luck that are not random called?

Gambler's fallacy

Genetic fallacy

### What is the slippery slope fallacy?

Belief that one event will inevitably lead to another, which will inevitably lead to a negative outcome

### What is the hasty generalization or anecdotes fallacy?

Making a conclusion based on a small or biased sample

### What is the affirming the consequent fallacy?

If it barks, then it's a dog; it's barking, therefore it's a dog

### What is the false cause fallacy?

Correlation does not imply causation

### What is the loaded question fallacy?

Asking a question that contains an assumption, making the answerer sound bad no matter what they say

### What is the no true Scotsman fallacy?

Changing the definition of a group to exclude someone after they have been criticized

## Study Notes

• The text discusses various logical fallacies that can hinder meaningful discussions.
• Fallacy of composition: If it's true for the parts, it's true for the whole. For example, having great players on a hockey team does not automatically make the team great.
• Fallacy of division: If it's true for the whole, it's true for the parts. For instance, if a flat is smaller than another, it doesn't follow that its doors are also smaller.
• Gambler's fallacy: Belief in streaks of good or bad luck that are not random. Six heads in a row from a coin flip is still just probability.
• Strawman fallacy: Misrepresenting an opponent's argument and attacking the misrepresentation rather than the actual argument.
• Genetic fallacy: Assuming an argument is automatically wrong based on its source. An expert in one field does not have inherent expertise in another.
• Red herring fallacy: Introducing irrelevant information to distract from the main issue. For example, someone's sadness over being in court does not prove or disprove their guilt for stealing a puppy.
• Appeal to popularity or bandwagon: Belief that something is true because many people believe it. Five million people can't be wrong, but that doesn't make it fact.
• False dichotomy: Presenting only two choices when more exist. For example, agreeing with everything or being an evil baby eater.
• Middle ground fallacy: Assuming that there must be a middle ground when there isn't. For example, saying that some people think two plus two is four and some people think it's five means the answer lies somewhere in the middle.
• Slippery slope fallacy: Belief that one event will inevitably lead to another, which will inevitably lead to a negative outcome. For example, getting a credit card leads to overspending, which leads to bankruptcy, which leads to homelessness.
• Hasty generalization or anecdotes: Making a conclusion based on a small or biased sample. For example, my aunt smoked cigarettes every day and lived to 109, so cigarettes aren't bad for you.
• Faulty analogy: Comparing things that are not similar in the way that is relevant. For example, government is like a business because they both make money, but they have different purposes.
• Burden of proof: Insisting that someone who disbelieves your claims must provide proof against them instead of providing proof for your own claims.
• Affirming the consequent: If it barks, then it's a dog; it's barking, therefore it's a dog. However, if it's not barking, it's not a dog is not valid.
• Denying the antecedent: If it barks, then it's a dog; it's not barking, therefore it's not a dog is not valid.
• Moving the goalposts: Changing the goal or criteria after the argument has started. For example, claiming to be able to read minds, but changing the definition after failing a test.
• False cause: Correlation does not imply causation. For example, global temperatures increasing while pirate numbers decrease does not mean pirates prevent global warming.
• Loaded question: Asking a question that contains an assumption, making the answerer sound bad no matter what they say. For example, "When did you stop beating your wife?"
• No true Scotsman: Changing the definition of a group to exclude someone after they have been criticized. For example, a Scotsman who puts sugar on his porridge is not a true Scotsman.
• Personal incredulity: Refusing to believe something because it's hard to believe. For example, it's hard to believe that we're all made of billions of atoms.
• Fallacy fallacy: Believing that a statement is false because it contains one or more fallacies. For example, just because your yoga teacher says you should eat vegetables because they're healthy does not make their statement fallacious.

Test your knowledge of logical fallacies with this quiz covering common reasoning errors that can hinder meaningful discussions. Explore fallacies such as the Gambler's fallacy, Strawman fallacy, False cause, Loaded question, and more.

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