Literature and Bagay Poetry in the Contemporary Period

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18 Questions

What is the main theme of the poem 'Ang Bayang Malaya' by Amado V. Hernandez?

Oppression and fighting for human rights

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the 'Bagay' form of poetry?

Focuses on personal expression

Which of the following poets is NOT mentioned as part of the 'Bagay' movement?

Amado V. Hernandez

What is the main theme of the poem 'Valediction sa Hillcrest' by Rolando S. Tinio?

The dilemma of choosing between two places, Tondo and New York

Which of the following best describes the 'contemporary period' in Philippine literature?

A period that oscillated between personal expression and social commentary

Who was Jose Garcia Villa, and what was his contribution to Philippine literature?

A Filipino poet, literary critic, short story writer, and painter

What is the term used for 'woven cloth' in the Ilocos region of northern Philippines?


What is the source of pride and a unifying symbol for the people of San Miguel Bulacan?

Pastillas de leche wrapper

Which festival celebrates the Christmas spirit by making different large and giant lanterns designed with different color and lights?

Giant Lantern Festival

What is the term used to describe the elaborate papercut designs used as decoration, table centerpiece, and souvenirs during San Miguel Bulacan fiestas?


What is the definition of 'literature' according to the text?

Anybody or collection of written work

Which form of poetry is mentioned in the text?


Which of the following is not considered a famous work of Filipino writer Francisco Arcellana?

A Blade of Fern

What is the defining characteristic of the poetic performance art known as SPOKEN POETRY?

The focus on the aesthetics of word play

Which Filipino writer is known as the Father of Modern Philippine Poetry?

Nick Joaquin

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the early American period of music in the Philippines?

Avant-garde music emerged into a combination of classical, traditional or ethnic music

Which Filipino writer is the only Asian to have won the prestigious Pulitzer Prize for Peace?

Carlos P. Romulo

What is the name of the most enchanting short story written by Filipino writer Nick Joaquin?

May Day Eve

Study Notes


  • Literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value.
  • It sometimes deploys language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.

Contemporary Period

  • The contemporary period oscillated between personal expression and social commentary.
  • The "Bagay" movement emerged during this period, characterized by the use of colloquial language and concrete images.
  • Notable poets of the "Bagay" movement include Jose F. Lacaba, Rolando Tinio, Bienvenido Lumbera, Antonio Samsaon, and Edmundo Martinez.

Notable Literary Works

  • "Valediction sa Hillcrest" by Rolando S. Tinio is a poem about a person's dilemma between two places, Tondo and New York, and its effect on their whole being.
  • "Ang Bayang Malaya" by Amado V. Hernandez is a long narrative piece about a peasant leader, focusing on oppression and fighting for human rights.

National Artists for Literature

  • Jose Garcia Villa is a Filipino poet, literary critic, short story writer, and painter who focuses on current events and social problems, often with historical themes.
  • Edith L. Tiempo is a poet, fictionist, and literary critic, and the only woman to be honored as National Artist for Literature.

Decorative Arts

  • Decorative arts include interior design, but not architecture, and focus on the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional.
  • Examples of decorative arts include cloth weaving, such as T'nalak and Inabel, and papercut designs, like those used in San Miguel Bulacan fiestas.

Folk Art

  • Pabalat is a folk art that originated among the townsfolk, reflecting their traditional culture.
  • The Giant Lantern Festival in City of San Fernando, Pampanga, showcases giant lanterns designed with different colors and lights.

Spoken Poetry

  • Spoken poetry is a poetic performance art that focuses on the aesthetics of word play, such as intonation and voice inflection.


  • Music combines vocal and instrumental sounds to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion.
  • During the early American period, music was mostly classical, due to European influence, while in the 1960s, avant-garde music emerged, combining classical, traditional, and ethnic music.

Explore the concept of literature as an art form and the emergence of Bagay poetry during the contemporary period. Learn about the 'Bagay' movement, a group of young poets who used colloquial language and concrete images in their works.

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