Linear Equations in Two Variables: Graphing, Solving Systems, and Applications

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12 Questions

How can the slope of a line be calculated from the coefficients of x and y in a linear equation?

By dividing the coefficient of x by the coefficient of y

For a linear equation of the form 3x + 2y = 6, what is the slope of the line?

-1.5

In the equation 4x - 3y = 12, what are the coordinates of the y-intercept?

(0, -4)

Which characteristic is NOT associated with linear equations in two variables?

Exponential growth

What is the standard form of a linear equation?

ax + by = c

When an equation has no constant term, what property does the corresponding line exhibit when graphed?

It passes through the origin

What is the purpose of the substitution method when solving systems of linear equations?

To solve for one variable in one equation and substitute into the other equation

Which form of a linear equation includes the slope and the y-intercept?

Slope-intercept form

How can you convert a linear equation from standard form to slope-intercept form?

Multiply both sides by -2/3, then subtract 7/3 from both sides

In which application field are linear equations commonly used to analyze economic relationships?

Economics

What does the graphing method involve when solving systems of linear equations?

Graphing each equation to find points of intersection

Which method of solving systems of linear equations requires making coefficients of one variable equal across two equations?

Elimination method

Study Notes

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Linear equations in two variables refer to algebraic expressions where the highest power of any variable is one. These equations have several key characteristics, such as being represented by straight lines when graphed, having unique solutions, and exhibiting properties like symmetry and translatability. Here we will discuss how to graph these equations, solve systems with multiple equations, understand their slope-intercept forms, visualize them using standard forms, and explore some practical applications.

Graphing Linear Equations

To graph a linear equation, follow these steps:

  1. Identify which line it represents. In general, any equation of the form ax + by = c will represent a straight line. If there's no constant term (c = 0), the line passes through the origin.
  2. Determine the slope of the line. The slope can be calculated from the coefficients of x and y. For example, if the equation is 2x - 5y = 10, the slope of the line is 2/(-5) = -0.4.
  3. Use the given slope and the y-intercept value to plot a point on the line. For the equation 2x - 5y = 10, the y-intercept is 10/(-5) = -2, so one point on the line is (-1, -2).
  4. Identify another point on the line. This can be any point on the line, such as (0, 0) for the y-intercept.
  5. Plot the second point on the line and draw a straight line connecting the two points. This is the graph of the linear equation.

Solving Systems of Linear Equations

A system of linear equations consists of two or more equations with the same variables. To solve such systems, you can use any of the following methods:

  • Substitution method: Solve for one variable in one equation, then substitute the resulting expression into the other equation.
  • Elimination method: Multiply one or both equations by constants to make the coefficients of one variable in one equation equal to the coefficients of the other variable in the other equation. Then add or subtract the equations as needed to eliminate one variable.
  • Graphing method: Graph each equation on the same coordinate system and find the point(s) of intersection.

Slope-Intercept Form

The slope-intercept form of a linear equation is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. This form is particularly useful when finding the equation of a line passing through two points.

For example, if a line passes through the points (1, 2) and (3, 5), the equation of the line in slope-intercept form is y = 3x + 2. This can be found by subtracting the y-coordinates and dividing by x-coordinates: (5 - 2) / (3 - 1) = 3/2.

Standard Form of Linear Equations

The standard form of a linear equation is ax + by = c, where a and b are integers and c is a constant. This is the form commonly used in algebraic contexts and appears on the standard coordinate plane.

For example, the equation 3x - 2y = 7 is written in standard form. To find a slope-intercept form, you could switch x and y, multiply both sides by -2/3, and subtract 7/3 from both sides:

\begin{align*}
-2x + 3y &= -\frac{7}{3}\\
-\frac{2}{3}x + \frac{3}{2}y &= -\frac{7}{6}
\end{align*}

So the equation in slope-intercept form would be \(-\frac{2}{3}x+\frac{3}{2}y=-\frac{7}{6}\).

Applications of Linear Equations

Linear equations are used extensively across various fields of study. Some examples include:

  • Economics: To analyze relationships between economic factors, economists often use linear equations.
  • Physics: In physics, vectors and forces can be analyzed and represented as linear equations.
  • Transportation planning: Bus schedules, train routes, and other transportation services rely on linear equations to determine arrival times, durations, and capacities.

Explore the world of linear equations in two variables through graphing techniques, systems solving methods, slope-intercept form, and applications in various fields such as economics, physics, and transportation planning.

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