## Podcast Beta

## Questions and Answers

What is the first step in designing a motor system to meet specific speed requirements?

What is the formula to calculate the torque load that will cause the motor to exceed a certain current?

What is the purpose of calculating the torque load in a motor system?

What is the relationship between the output torque and input torque of a gearbox?

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Why is it important to consider the gear ratios available when designing a motor system?

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What is the primary goal when designing a compound gear reduction?

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What is the result of not being able to achieve the exact gear ratio required with the available gears?

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What is the purpose of calculating the gear reduction required?

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What is the torque applied to the output of the lever system in the example above?

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What is the resulting force on the output of the lever system in the example above?

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How do gears work in terms of mechanical advantage?

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What happens to the torque when a small gear drives a large gear?

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What happens to the speed when a small gear drives a large gear?

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What is the angle of rotation of the 60-tooth gear when the 36-tooth gear is rotated 1 tooth?

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How do the speeds of the two gears compare in the example above?

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What is the mechanical advantage of using gears and levers?

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What is the primary advantage of varying the gear ratio and mechanical advantage in a system?

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What is the ratio of the sizes of two gears meshing proportional to?

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What is the Gear Ratio denoted as?

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What is the main issue with the direct drive mechanism from the motor to the lock bar in the scoop bucket prototype?

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What software is used to design and test the gear drive in the scoop bucket project?

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What is the formula to calculate the Gear Reduction?

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What is the formula to calculate the Output Torque?

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What is the primary purpose of the seven videos in the project, including the Overview and Summary?

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What is a prerequisite for completing this unit?

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What is the formula to calculate the Output Speed?

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What happens to the speed and torque when the Gear Reduction is greater than 1?

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What is the main benefit of using a gear drive in the scoop bucket project?

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What happens to the speed and torque when the Gear Reduction is less than 1?

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What is the relationship between the number of teeth on a gear and its diameter?

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What is the overall gear reduction in a gearbox with twelve 12:60 reductions as part of one compound reduction?

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What is the advantage of using pulleys and belts in mechanical power transmission?

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Why is mechanical advantage important in the design of DC motor systems?

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What is the result of multiplying the gear reductions of each individual gear pair in a compound gear system?

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How do sprocket ratios compare to gear ratios?

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What is the result of having a compound gear reduction of 25 in a system?

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How long would it take for the output to spin once if the input is spun at a rate of once per second in a gearbox with a compound gear reduction of 244,140,625?

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What is the purpose of using gear reductions in mechanical power transmission?

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## Study Notes

### Mechanical Advantage and Levers

- Mechanical advantage can be achieved through the use of levers, which can be used to harness a fixed input force to accomplish a desired output.
- The formula for torque is: Torque = Force x Distance from Center of Rotation.
- Example: If the input force is 4 Newtons and moves 1 meter, the output will have a force of 1 Newton and moves 4 meters.

### Gears and Gear Reduction

- Gears work in the same manner as levers, with the diameters of the gears becoming the lengths of the levers.
- The resulting change of torque is equivalent to the ratio of the diameters.
- Small gears driving large gears result in a torque increase, while large gears driving small gears result in a torque decrease.
- The gear ratio is denoted as (Driving Gear Teeth):(Driven Gear Teeth), and the gear reduction is calculated as Driven Gear Teeth / Driving Gear Teeth.
- Example: A 36-tooth gear driving a 60-tooth gear results in a gear reduction of 1.67 and a speed decrease.

### Gear Reduction and Torque Change

- The ratio between the sizes of two gears meshing is proportional to the resulting torque change and speed change between them.
- Combining gear ratios can result in a compound gear reduction, which can be calculated by multiplying the individual gear reductions.
- Example: A gearbox with twelve 12:60 reductions results in an overall reduction of 244,140,625, almost a quarter of a billion to 1.

### Other Types of Reductions

- Sprockets and chains, and pulleys and belts can also be used to provide gear reduction.
- The same principles apply to these mechanisms, with the ratio being calculated by counting teeth or comparing diameters.

### Applying Gear Ratios to DC Motor Systems

- Adjustments to mechanical advantage are important in the design of DC motor systems.
- The first step is to calculate the load the motor must be under to meet the design criteria.
- The output requirements and input limits are then used to calculate the ratio required.
- Example: A VEX 2-wire Motor 393 requires a gear ratio of 18.68 to lift a 30 Newton object and not exceed the current draw of 2.5 amps.

### Designing a Gear System

- A designer's ability to vary the gear ratio and mechanical advantage gives them the versatility to accomplish whatever work needs to be done with whatever motors they have.
- The simplest approach is to determine the inputs and outputs, calculate the difference between them, and set the gear ratio accordingly.
- This method can be applied to any number of motor/gearing systems.

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## Description

Quiz about calculating torque and resultant force in a lever system, with examples of input and output forces and distances.