Introduction to Psychology Schools of Thought

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10 Questions

What does behaviorism focus on?

Observable behavior

Which type of learning is associated with pairing a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus to trigger a response?

Classical conditioning

What does operant conditioning involve?

Using rewards and punishments

In classical conditioning, what happens after an association is formed between the neutral stimulus and the natural stimulus?

The neutral stimulus triggers the same response as the natural stimulus

Which theory of learning involves creating an association between behavior and its consequences?

Behavioral theory

What was the primary focus of the Structuralist School of Psychology?

Analyzing basic elements of mental processes

Which technique was commonly used by the structuralists to analyze the inner processes of the human mind?

Introspection

Who was a prominent figure associated with the Behaviorist School of Psychology?

John B. Watson

Which school of psychology emphasized the role of external influences in shaping behavior?

Behaviorist School of Psychology

What distinguished the Structuralist School of Psychology from other schools of thought?

Focus on introspection and basic mental elements

Study Notes

Introduction to Psychology

  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior of individuals and their mental processes.

Schools of Psychology

Structuralist School of Psychology

  • Founded by Wilhelm Wundt, the first psychology lab.
  • Focus: Reducing mental processes down into their most basic elements.
  • Techniques used: Introspection, experimental self-observation.
  • Method: Trained observers examined their inner responses, thinking as carefully and objectively as possible.

Behaviorist School of Psychology

  • Emerged in the 1950s.
  • Based on the work of: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner.
  • Key principle: All behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than internal forces.
  • Focus: Observable behavior.

Behavioral Theories

Classical Conditioning

  • A type of learning that involves associating a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.
  • Example: Pairing the sound of a bell with the presentation of food.

Operant Conditioning

  • A type of learning that involves using rewards and punishments to create an association between the behavior and the consequences of that behavior.

Learn about the different schools of psychology that represent major theories in the field of psychological science, starting from the emergence of psychology as a science separate from biology and philosophy. Understand the debate over describing and explaining human mind and behavior.

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