Introduction to Programming Linguistics

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What is the primary focus of programming linguistics?

Syntax, semantics, and pragmatics

How do natural languages (NLs) differ from programming languages (PLs)?

NLs are more expressive and subtle than PLs

What are the essential properties of a programming language (PL)?

Universality, naturalness, and implementability

What are the building blocks of programs and programming languages (PLs)?

Values and types

Why is it important for a programming language (PL) to be universal?

To ensure all programs can run on a computer

Which paradigm is characterized by processes and communication?

Concurrent programming

What is the concern of a programming language's semantics?

The meaning of well-formed programs

Which language processor is used for preparing programs for execution?

Compilers

Which programming languages were developed in 1955?

Fortran

Which language was developed in 1995 and belongs to the object-oriented paradigm?

Java

In the context of parameter passing methods, which technique does C++ support?

Pass-by-reference

What is the main characteristic of call by value parameter passing method?

It provides a copy of the variable's value

What does the static chain in stack layout contain in each stack frame?

Reference to the lexically surrounding subroutine

Which programming languages primarily use pass-by-value for parameter passing?

Java and JavaScript

What tasks are performed in the epilogue phase of the calling sequences?

Executing finalization code and deallocating stack frame

In the context of programming language subroutines, what is the difference between a function and a procedure?

A function returns a value, while a procedure does not return a value

What is the purpose of a subprogram call in the context of programming language subroutines?

To explicitly request the execution of the subprogram

What is the parameter profile of a subprogram?

The number, order, and types of parameters of the subprogram

In C and C++, what are function declarations often called?

Prototypes

What is the general semantics of subprogram calls?

Pass parameters, allocate storage for local variables, save execution status, transfer control

Explore the fundamental concepts and historical development of programming languages and paradigms, including syntax, semantics, and language processors. Delve into the study of programming languages in comparison to natural languages, examining their syntax and semantics.

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