Intermolecular Forces in Solids and Liquids

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Why do solids have strong intermolecular forces?

Because the particles are tightly packed together

Why do liquids have intermediate boiling and melting points?

Due to the close proximity of particles

Why do gases have much lower boiling and melting points compared to solids and liquids?

Due to the weak intermolecular forces in gases

What is the fundamental unit of matter composed of two or more atoms bound together by chemical bonds?

Molecule

What determines how fast and freely molecules move within a substance?

Kinetic Energy

Why do gases allow molecules to move freely with only occasional collisions between them?

Because gases have very weak intermolecular forces

What was the key discovery made by James Chadwick that led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize?

The discovery of uncharged particles with a mass close to that of a proton, called neutrons

What is the relationship between the atomic number (Z) and the number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom?

The atomic number is equal to the number of protons and the number of electrons

What is the relationship between the mass number (A) and the number of protons and neutrons in an atom?

The mass number (A) is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

What was the key discovery made by Ernest Rutherford in his gold foil experiment?

The existence of the nucleus, a dense, positively charged core

What is the charge of a titanium atom with an atomic number of 22 and a mass number of 48?

4+

What is the relationship between protons, neutrons, and nucleons in an atom?

Protons and neutrons are both small but massive, and their masses are nearly equal. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons.

What is the essential component of water?

Hydrogen and oxygen

What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered by water?

70%

What is the continuous movement of water in the biosphere called?

Both b and c

What happens when energy increases during a phase change?

Particles move faster and spread out

What is the process of turning water vapor into liquid water called?

Condensation

Which of the following is an example of precipitation?

Rain

Which factor affects the ionization energy of an element?

Shielding of Electrons

How does larger atomic size affect reactivity?

Lowers it

Why do elements with lower ionization energies exhibit higher reactivity?

They experience weaker attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons

What is the relationship between electronegativity and reactivity?

Higher electronegativity, higher reactivity

How does the distance of valence electrons from the nucleus affect reactivity?

Lowers it

What characterizes elements with lower ionization energies regarding electron removal?

They lose electrons easily

What is the Greek origin of the word 'atom'?

Indivisible

Which type of ion has more protons than electrons?

Cation

What is the main difference between isotopes and ions?

Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, while ions gain or lose electrons.

What principle dictates that electrons occupy orbitals with lower energies before higher energy orbitals?

Aufbau Principle

Where is the high probability of finding electrons in an atom?

Energy Level Orbits

In atomic electron configuration notation, what does '1s² 2s² 2p²' represent for Carbon?

$C$

Test your knowledge on how intermolecular forces impact the properties of solids and liquids, such as boiling and melting points. Understand why particles in a solid state are tightly packed together, leading to strong intermolecular forces.

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