Indus Valley Civilization

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What was the approximate duration of the mature phase of the Harappan Civilisation?

700 years

What is the name of the rivers along which settlements existed besides the Indus?

Ghaggar-Hakra, Saraswati, and Drasadvati

When did the cultural influence of the Indus Valley Civilization cease to exist?

After 1500 BC

When did historians revise their interpretation of early Indian history?

After the discovery of the ruins at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the 1920s

What is the approximate date assigned to the findings at Mehrgarh?

7000 BC

What is the geographical area covered by the Indus Valley Civilization?

Modern Pakistan and northwest India

Who led the American team that excavated at Chanhu Daro?

Norman Brown

What was the significance of Mortimer Wheeler's appointment in 1944?

He introduced new methods of excavation and recording

What was recently found in Tamil Nadu that indicates a broader span of Harappan influence?

A 3,500-year-old stone axe engraved with the Harappan script

Who led the joint Franco-Pakistani team that excavated at Mehrgarh?

Jean-François Jarrige

What was the significance of the excavation at Mehrgarh?

It demonstrated the thread of archaeological continuity from the earliest foundations of Mehrgarh to the great cities of the Indus

Who toured around the region of the dried-up Ghaggar-Hakra river system and listed nearly sixty different sites?

Sir Aurel Stein

What is likely to have been the composition of the elites who held power in the Indus cities?

A coalition of rich merchants, priests and bureaucrats

What is the estimated duration of Mohenjo Daro's period of glory?

700 years

What is the profession of the person depicted in the sculpture retrieved from Mohenjo Daro?


What is the significance of the images on the seals found in Mohenjo Daro?

They symbolize political, economic or power

What could the animal images on the seals have acted as?

Symbols of authority of certain officers or dominant lineages and clan families

What could be the power symbol of the most numerous clan?


What was a unique feature of Mohenjo Daro, not found in any other ancient city?

The Great Bath

What was the estimated number of wells in the city of Mohenjo Daro?


What was the purpose of the separate inflows and drains under the streets and buildings in Mohenjo Daro?

To channel waste away from clean water

What was a common feature of most major sites in the Harappan or Indus system?

A raised citadel sector in the west and a lower town in the east

What was the benefit of having separate wells for each house in Mohenjo Daro?

It ensured that the citizens had sufficient water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and cleaning

What can be inferred about the organisation of the Harappan or Indus system?

There was organisation, despite the lack of a unified empire

What might have been the purpose of using seals by rich merchants?

To mark their goods for trade

What can be deduced about the religiosity of the Indus city inhabitants?

Certain aspects of their religiosity and spirituality can be inferred

What was the likely significance of the water in the Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro?

It was reserved for ritual washing by groups of priests

What symbols of religious art are depicted on seals and tablets?

Symbols with close Hindu associations

What is the significance of the pipal and banyan trees in Hindu mythology?

They are symbols of fertility, protection, and death

What is the significance of the reference to the Aryan god Indra in the RigVeda?

It mentions the destruction of the Dasas or Dasyus by Indra

Explore the ancient civilization that developed along the Indus River, with substantial settlements along nearby rivers. Learn about the culture and traditions of this early Indian civilization from Vedic literature and archaeological surveys.

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