Individual Differences in Psychology

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What is the study of individual differences also known as?

Differential Psychology

How are psychological constructs defined?

As concepts that are not directly observable but are hypothesized to be influential in determining or explaining behavior

What is a general mental capability that involves reasoning, problem-solving, and abstract thinking?

General intelligence

What is the historical context of the study of individual differences referred to as?

Idiographic and Nomothetic

What do psychological constructs like personality and intelligence reflect?

Broad and deep capabilities for comprehending our surroundings

Study Notes

Individual Differences

  • The study of individual differences is also known as Differential Psychology.
  • Differential Psychology focuses on understanding the unique characteristics, traits, and abilities that distinguish one person from another.

Psychological Constructs

  • Psychological constructs, such as personality and intelligence, are defined as abstract concepts or models used to explain and describe mental processes and behaviors.
  • These constructs are often used to measure and quantify individual differences in mental abilities and characteristics.

Intelligence

  • Intelligence refers to a general mental capability that involves reasoning, problem-solving, and abstract thinking.
  • It encompasses a range of cognitive skills, including memory, learning, and problem-solving, which are essential for adapting to the environment and achieving success.

Historical Context

  • The historical context of the study of individual differences is referred to as the "Galtonian tradition".
  • This tradition, named after Sir Francis Galton, has contributed significantly to the development of modern psychological theories and methods for understanding individual differences.

Reflection of Psychological Constructs

  • Psychological constructs like personality and intelligence reflect the unique patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior that define an individual's psychological profile.
  • These constructs are often used to understand why individuals differ in their abilities, personalities, and behaviors, and how these differences impact their daily lives and interactions.

Test your knowledge on individual differences in psychology, including psychological constructs, conceptual approaches, historical context, and the importance of studying individual differences.

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