Questions and Answers
What are the coefficients of the quadratic equation in standard form?
2, 3, 7
What is the value of (b/2a)^2 in the given quadratic equation?
9/4
What are the solutions for x in the quadratic equation?
x = 8.5 and x = 1.5
What does 2^(1/3) represent?
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Why are indices essential in mathematics?
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Study Notes
Indices: A Comprehensive Guide
Indices, also known as exponents or powers, are mathematical expressions that represent the repeated multiplication of a base value by itself. They are used to simplify complex multiplication and to express relationships between variables. In this article, we will cover the basics of indices, solving equations with indices, and fractional indices.
Basics of Indices
Indices follow the following rules:

Product of Powers: If a and b are nonzero numbers and m and n are integers, then
a^m * a^n = a^(m + n)
. 
Quotient of Powers: If a and b are nonzero numbers and m and n are integers, then
a^m / a^n = a^(m  n)
. 
Power of a Power: If a is a nonzero number and m and n are integers, then
(a^m)^n = a^(mn)
. 
Zero to Any Power: Any nonzero number raised to the power of zero is equal to 1,
a^0 = 1
.
Indices can be expressed using the caret symbol ^
to indicate the base and the exponent, such as a^m
.
Solving Equations with Indices
Solving equations with indices involves understanding the properties of exponents and using them to simplify the equation. For example, consider the following equation:
2x^2 + 3x  7 = 0
To solve for x, we can use the following steps:

Factor out the greatest common factor (GCF): In this case, the GCF is 1, so we don't need to factor it out.

Rewrite the equation in standard form: The standard form of a quadratic equation is
ax^2 + bx + c = 0
, wherea
,b
, andc
are constants. 
Identify the coefficients: In our example,
a = 2
,b = 3
, andc = 7
. 
Complete the square: To complete the square, we need to find the value of
(b/2a)^2
. In our example,(3/2*2)^2 = 9/4
. 
Add and subtract the perfect square: Add and subtract the value we found in the previous step, resulting in
(x  3/2)^2 = 9/4 + 7 = 49/4
. 
Take the square root: Take the square root of both sides of the equation to find the possible values of x:
x  3/2 = ±√(49/4)
x  3/2 = ±7/2
 Solve for x: Solve for x by adding 3/2 to both sides of the equation:
x = 3/2 ± 7/2
x = 10/2 ± 7/2
x = 5 ± 3.5
So, the solutions for x are x = 8.5
and x = 1.5
.
Fractional Indices
Fractional indices, also known as roots, are used to represent the nth root of a number. For example, √2
is the square root of 2, which is approximately 1.414. In mathematics, the most common fractional indices are the square root (√), cubic root (∛), and fourth root (∜).
To understand fractional indices, consider the following example:
2^(1/2) = √2 ≈ 1.414
2^(1/3) = ∛2 ≈ 1.259
2^(1/4) = ∜2 ≈ 1.181
In these examples, 2^(1/2)
represents the square root of 2, 2^(1/3)
represents the cubic root of 2, and 2^(1/4)
represents the fourth root of 2.
Conclusion
Indices are an essential part of mathematics, allowing us to simplify complex multiplication and express relationships between variables. By understanding the basics of indices, solving equations with indices, and fractional indices, we can effectively use them in various mathematical applications.
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Description
Explore the fundamentals of indices, including the basic rules for product, quotient, and power of powers, solving equations involving indices, and understanding fractional indices or roots. Gain a comprehensive understanding of using indices to simplify complex multiplication and express relationships between variables.