Indian History and Geography

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10 Questions

What was the approximate time period when the Indian Independence Movement gained momentum?

Early 20th century

What was the main objective of the Quit India Movement started in 1942?

To end British rule in India

What is the Preamble of the Indian Constitution primarily concerned with?

Enshrining the objectives of the Constitution

Which of the following is a Directive Principle of State Policy?

Promoting the welfare of citizens

What is the primary concern of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972?

Protection of wildlife

What is the largest river in India by discharge?

Brahmaputra

Which mountain range is located along the western coast of India?

Western Ghats

What is the name of the international agreement aimed at reducing ozone depletion?

Montreal Protocol

What is the name of the desert located in the Ladakh region?

Cold Desert

Which of the following is NOT a Fundamental Right guaranteed to all citizens of India?

Right to education

Study Notes

Modern Indian History

  • Indian Independence Movement:
    • Started in the late 19th century, gained momentum in the early 20th century
    • Key figures: Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai
    • Major events: Non-Cooperation Movement (1920), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930), Quit India Movement (1942)
  • Indian National Congress:
    • Founded in 1885, played a key role in the independence movement
    • Sessions: Bombay (1885), Lahore (1929), Karachi (1931)
  • Partition of India:
    • India divided into India and Pakistan on August 15, 1947
    • Resulted in one of the largest mass migrations in history
  • Post-Independence India:
    • India became a republic on January 26, 1950
    • Key leaders: Jawaharlal Nehru (first Prime Minister), Indira Gandhi (first female Prime Minister)

Indian Constitution

  • Preamble:
    • Introduced on November 26, 1949
    • Enshrines the objectives of the Constitution: justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity
  • Fundamental Rights:
    • Guaranteed to all citizens
    • Include: right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion
  • Directive Principles of State Policy:
    • Enshrined in Part IV of the Constitution
    • Aim to promote the welfare of citizens and the country
  • Three Organs of the Government:
    • Legislature: makes laws
    • Executive: implements laws
    • Judiciary: interprets laws

Environmental Conservation

  • Major Environmental Issues in India:
    • Air pollution
    • Water pollution
    • Soil pollution
    • Climate change
    • Deforestation
  • Conservation Efforts:
    • Wildlife Protection Act (1972)
    • Forest Conservation Act (1980)
    • National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement (1992)
    • National Environment Policy (2006)
  • International Agreements:
    • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992)
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
    • Montreal Protocol (1987)

Physiography of India

  • Mountains:
    • Himalayas: the highest mountain range in India
    • Karakoram range: located in the northwestern part of India
    • Eastern Ghats: located along the eastern coast of India
    • Western Ghats: located along the western coast of India
  • Rivers:
    • Ganges: the longest river in India
    • Indus: the westernmost river in India
    • Brahmaputra: the largest river in India by discharge
    • Krishna: the second-longest river in India
  • Deserts:
    • Thar Desert: located in the northwestern part of India
    • Cold Desert: located in the Ladakh region
  • Islands:
    • Andaman and Nicobar Islands: located in the Bay of Bengal
    • Lakshadweep Islands: located in the Arabian Sea

Test your knowledge of Modern Indian History, including the Indian Independence Movement, Indian National Congress, and Partition of India. Also, explore Physiography of India, including mountains, rivers, deserts, and islands. Additionally, get familiar with the Indian Constitution and Environmental Conservation efforts.

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