Indian Constitution Basics

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10 Questions

What is the purpose of the Preamble in the Indian Constitution?

To set out the objectives of the Constitution

Which of the following is NOT a Fundamental Right guaranteed by the Constitution?

Right to Free Education

What is the primary purpose of the Directive Principles of State Policy?

To provide guidelines for the government to implement policies for the welfare of citizens

When were the Fundamental Duties introduced in the Indian Constitution?

Through the 42nd Amendment in 1976

What is the Composition of the Parliament of India?

Bicameral with a Lower House and an Upper House

What is the procedure to amend the Indian Constitution?

By the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament, followed by a special majority and ratification by State Legislatures

What is the purpose of Article 352 in the Indian Constitution?

To declare a National Emergency

What is the significance of the 42nd Amendment in the Indian Constitution?

It introduced the concept of Fundamental Duties

What is the composition of the government of India?

Parliamentary System with the President as the Head of State and the Prime Minister as the Head of Government

What is the purpose of Article 356 in the Indian Constitution?

To declare a State Emergency

Study Notes

Preamble

  • The Preamble is the introductory part of the Indian Constitution
  • It sets out the objectives of the Constitution
  • It declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic

Fundamental Rights

  • Guaranteed by the Constitution, these are basic human rights
  • Articles 12-35: Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights, and Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Can be enforced by the courts

Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Guidelines for the government to implement policies for the welfare of citizens
  • Non-justiciable, meaning they cannot be enforced by the courts
  • Articles 36-51: socioeconomic development, international peace and security, and strengthening the Indian economy

Fundamental Duties

  • Introduced by the 42nd Amendment in 1976
  • Articles 51A: duties of citizens, including respecting the Constitution, the national flag, and the national anthem

Government of India

  • Parliamentary System: President as the Head of State, Prime Minister as the Head of Government
  • Three branches of government: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
  • Bicameral Parliament: Lok Sabha (Lower House) and Rajya Sabha (Upper House)

Amendments

  • Procedure for amending the Constitution: Article 368
  • Can be initiated by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament
  • Requires a special majority (2/3 majority in each House and ratification by at least half of the State Legislatures)

Emergency Provisions

  • Article 352: National Emergency, can be declared by the President if the security of India is threatened
  • Article 356: State Emergency, can be declared by the President if the government of a State cannot function in accordance with the Constitution
  • Article 360: Financial Emergency, can be declared by the President if the financial stability of India is threatened

Test your knowledge of the Indian Constitution, including its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles, and government structure. Covers key concepts and articles.

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