ABO blood groups, circulatory system
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ABO blood groups, circulatory system

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Questions and Answers

Explain the importance of elastic fibres in the wall of the aorta

It stretches/expands under high pressure (when ventricle contracts). It recoils back under low pressure (when ventricle relaxes). This smooths blood flow and helps maintain blood pressure

Explain the importance of muscle fibres in the wall of an arteriole

The muscle contracts to constrict the arteriole, helping to regulating blood flow to the capillaries

Explain why a type O blood can only receive blood from O-type donor

erythrocytes of O-type do not have antigens present on cell. Plasma of O-type has antibodies for both A and B antigens. If blood with A and/or B antigens is present, O-type plasma antibodies will destroy the donated blood. This results in agglutination.

What are the four blood groups and how are they determined?

<p>The four blood groups are A, B, AB, and O. They are determined by antigens on the RBC/erythrocyte and opposite antibodies found in the plasma.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the antigen-antibody relationship in blood group A.

<p>Group A has A antigens on red blood cells and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the characteristics of blood group B.

<p>Group B has B antigens on red blood cells and anti-A antibodies in the plasma.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is unique about blood group AB in terms of antigens and antibodies?

<p>Group AB has both A and B antigens on red blood cells and no antibodies in the plasma.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the antigen-antibody composition of blood group O.

<p>Group O has no antigens on red blood cells and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can happen when Rh-negative blood is transfused into an Rh-positive individual?

<p>The recipient's immune system may recognize Rh antigens as foreign and mount an immune response.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of platelets in blood clotting?

<p>Platelets adhere to the site of injury and release clotting factors that promote the formation of fibrin, reinforcing the platelet plug and forming a blood clot.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the function of T lymphocytes in the immune system.

<p>T lymphocytes directly attack infected or abnormal cells, regulate immune responses by releasing cytokines, and provide long-term immunity through memory responses.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of red blood cell transfusions in cases of severe blood loss?

<p>Red blood cell transfusions help restore oxygen-carrying capacity to the bloodstream, replenish lost blood volume, and improve oxygen delivery to tissues.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the role of neutrophils in the immune system.

<p>Neutrophils are phagocytes that engulf and destroy bacteria and fungi, playing a crucial role in the innate immune response.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do memory T cells contribute to long-term immunity?

<p>Memory T cells persist after an initial infection and can rapidly mount an immune response upon re-encountering the same pathogen, leading to faster and more effective clearance.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the structure of the mammalian heart and its function.

<p>The mammalian heart consists of four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. It pumps blood throughout the body, receiving deoxygenated blood from the body and pumping it to the lungs for oxygenation, then receiving oxygenated blood and pumping it to the rest of the body.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the role of capillaries in fluid exchange in the body.

<p>Capillaries allow for the exchange of fluid between the blood and the interstitial fluid surrounding the cells, helping maintain fluid balance in the tissues and regulating blood volume and pressure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do metabolic wastes and lactic acid act as vasodilators in the body?

<p>Metabolic wastes and lactic acid cause arteries to dilate, increasing blood flow to tissues to deliver more oxygen and nutrients during periods of increased metabolic activity.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the structure and function of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the body.

<p>Erythrocytes are disc-shaped cells without a nucleus, responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carrying carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs for exhalation.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of platelets in the bloodstream?

<p>Platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting (hemostasis) by aggregating at the site of blood vessel injury and forming a plug to stop bleeding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain how leukocytes (white blood cells) contribute to the immune response.

<p>Leukocytes are nucleated cells involved in immune defense, with different types like neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, each having specific functions in fighting infections.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What substances are transported by plasma in the bloodstream?

<p>Plasma transports various substances, including nutrients (glucose, amino acids), gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide), hormones, waste products (urea, creatinine), and electrolytes (sodium, potassium).</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the septum in the heart?

<p>Preventing oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the process of vasoconstriction in arteries.

<p>Contraction of the artery's muscle to reduce the diameter and blood flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the difference between systole and diastole in the cardiac cycle.

<p>Systole: Heart contraction to pump blood out, Diastole: Heart relaxation to fill with blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) help maintain blood circulation?

<p>By manually pumping blood through chest compressions when the heart has stopped working</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of arterioles in the circulatory system?

<p>Supplying blood to the capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the significance of the aorta in the circulatory system.

<p>The aorta carries blood from the left ventricle to the body</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the challenges giraffes face in circulating blood effectively throughout their bodies.

<p>Due to the significant distance between their hearts and heads, giraffes face challenges in pumping blood with enough force to overcome gravity and the height of their long necks.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the adaptations in the giraffe's circulatory system that help ensure oxygenated blood reaches all parts of its body.

<p>The giraffe has high arterial blood pressure and one-way valves in its neck arteries to prevent backflow of blood when lowering its head to drink water.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the cardiac cycle and define systole and diastole.

<p>The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events in one complete heart beat. Systole is the pumping phase when the heart muscle contracts, and diastole is the filling phase when the heart muscle relaxes.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Discuss the roles of vasodilation and vasoconstriction in blood circulation.

<p>Vasodilation widens blood vessels, increasing blood flow and decreasing blood pressure. Vasoconstriction narrows blood vessels, decreasing blood flow and increasing blood pressure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the importance of papillary muscles in the heart?

<p>Papillary muscles prevent inversion or prolapse of the atrioventricular valves during ventricular contraction by tensioning the chordae tendineae.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the function of the pulmonary artery compared to other arteries in the body.

<p>The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygenation. This is because the right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the role of vasodilators in regulating blood flow through capillaries during exercise.

<p>Vasodilators widen arterioles, increasing blood flow to muscle tissues to supply oxygen and nutrients during exercise.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do semilunar valves contribute to maintaining blood flow in the heart?

<p>Semilunar valves prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles when they relax, ensuring blood only flows in one direction.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the 'lub dub' sound in heartbeats?

<p>The 'lub' sound is due to the closing of atrioventricular valves, and the 'dub' sound is due to the closing of semilunar valves.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain why the left ventricle wall is thicker compared to the right ventricle.

<p>The left ventricle wall is thicker to pump blood with more force through the blood vessels supplying the body.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the process of blood clot formation and its significance.

<p>Blood clot formation involves platelets sticking to the injury site, followed by fibrin network formation to trap blood cells and platelets, preventing excessive bleeding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of platelets in the process of blood clotting?

<p>Platelets adhere to the rough surface of an injury to form a platelet plug, initiating the clotting process.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain how a thrombus can lead to a serious medical condition like a stroke.

<p>If a thrombus breaks loose and lodges in a vital blood vessel in the brain, it can cause a blockage leading to a stroke.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of fibrin in the process of blood clotting?

<p>Fibrin forms an insoluble protein network that traps blood cells and platelets, contributing to the formation of a stable blood clot.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the importance of chordae tendineae in the functioning of the heart valves.

<p>Chordae tendineae hold the valve flaps in place during ventricular contraction, preventing backflow of blood between atria and ventricles.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do arterioles help regulate blood flow in muscle tissues during exercise?

<p>Contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle in arterioles controls blood flow to muscle cells, ensuring adequate oxygen and nutrient supply during physical activity.</p> Signup and view all the answers

The aorta has many elastic fibres in its wall. An arteriole has many muscle fibres in its wall. Explain the importance of elastic fibres in the wall of the aorta.

<p>It stretches/expands under high pressure (when ventricle contracts). This muscle recoils under low pressure (when ventricle relaxes). This smooths blood flow and maintains blood pressure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the importance of muscle fibres in the wall of an arteriole

<p>Muscle contracts, constricting the arteriole, narrowing the size of lumen, regulating blood flow to capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the structure of the mammalian heart (6 marks)

<p>There are four chambers (left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle). The atrium is positioned in the top half of the heart whereas the ventricles are positioned in the bottom half of the heart. The septum separates the left and right sides of the heart. Ventricles have thicker walls than the atria because the atria is responsible for receiving the blood but the ventricles have to pump it out of the heart. The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery whereas the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood around the entire body via the aorta so it has to withstand greater pressure, thus it has the thickest walls. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava (brings blood back from above the heart) and inferior vena cava (brings blood back from below the heart). Furthermore, tricuspid valve is between right atrium and right ventricle; bicuspid valve is between left atrium and left ventricle; pulmonary valve is between right ventricle and pulmonary artery; aortic valve is between left ventricle and aorta.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why can an O type blood person only receive blood from an O-type donor

<p>erythrocytes of O-type doo not have antigens present on cell. Plasma of O-type has antibodies for both A and B antigens. If erythrocyte with A and/or B antigens is present, O-type plasma antibodies will destroy the donated blood. This results in agglutination.</p> Signup and view all the answers

For theres blood groups: A, B, AB, O, Rh+ and Rh-, list the antigens present on erythrocyte and antibodies present in plasma

<p>A: antigen A, antibody B B: antigen B, antibody A AB: antigen A and B, no antibodies O: no antigens, both antibodies Rh+: Rh antigen, no anti-Rh antibody Rh-: no Rh antigen, anti Rh antibody</p> Signup and view all the answers

Define agglutination

<p>The clumping together of micro-organisms or of blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

State what is meant by blood group

<p>A blood group refers to a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The two most well-known blood group systems are the ABO system and the Rh system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe what a blood transfusion is and reasons why someone may require one

<p>A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or blood components are transferred from one person (donor) into the bloodstream of another person (recipient). This procedure is often necessary to replace blood lost due to surgery, injury, or disease, or to treat certain medical conditions such as anaemia or bleeding disorders.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the importance of matching blood groups with blood donors and blood recipients

<p>Matching blood groups between donors and recipients is crucial to prevent adverse reactions during blood transfusions. Incompatible blood transfusions can trigger immune responses in the recipient, leading to agglutination, hemolysis, and other serious complications.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Compare and contrast the ABO blood groups and Rh blood groups

<p>ABO Blood Groups: The ABO blood group system classifies blood into four main types based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells: A, B, AB, and O. Additionally, individuals may have antibodies against the antigens they lack. For example, blood group A individuals have anti-B antibodies, and blood group B individuals have anti-A antibodies.</p> <p>Rh Blood Groups: The Rh blood group system classifies blood based on the presence or absence of the Rh antigen (also known as the D antigen) on the surface of red blood cells. Individuals who have the Rh antigen are Rh-positive (e.g., A+, B+, AB+), while those who lack the antigen are Rh-negative (e.g., A-, B-, AB-). Rh-negative individuals do not naturally produce anti-Rh antibodies unless they are exposed to Rh-positive blood, such as during a transfusion or pregnancy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

1 Describe the appearance of a red blood cell. What does the appearance tell you about the structure of the cell?

<p>Answer: The red blood cells are round and are a deeper colour around the edge than in the centre. The colour distribution indicates that the cells are thicker towards the edges than in the centre; that is, they are biconcave.</p> Signup and view all the answers

3 What is the approximate difference in size between red blood cells and white blood cells?

<p>2x the diameter</p> Signup and view all the answers

4 What is the approximate ratio of numbers of red blood cells to white cells?

<p>there are 700 times as many red as white</p> Signup and view all the answers

5 Were you able to see any platelets? Suggest why platelets are difficult to see with a school microscope.

<p>Platelets are cell fragments (1/3 the size of an erythrocyte) and so they are not stained by most of the stains used to view blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Blood Groups

  • Blood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs)
  • There are four main blood groups: A, B, AB, and O
  • Each blood group has specific antigens and antibodies:
    • Group A: A antigens and anti-B antibodies
    • Group B: B antigens and anti-A antibodies
    • Group AB: A and B antigens and no antibodies
    • Group O: no antigens and anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Rh Factor

  • Rh factor is a protein found on the surface of RBCs
  • Individuals with Rh factor are considered Rh-positive, while those without it are Rh-negative
  • When Rh-negative blood is transfused into an Rh-positive individual, the recipient's immune system may react to the Rh antigen, leading to an immune response

Capillaries

  • Capillaries are crucial for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and tissues
  • Functions of capillaries:
    • Gas exchange: oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the blood and tissues
    • Nutrient delivery: essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids are delivered to the tissues
    • Waste removal: metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea are removed from the tissues
    • Fluid exchange: fluid exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid surrounding the cells

Heart and Circulation

  • The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
  • Structure of the heart:
    • Four chambers: two atria (upper) and two ventricles (lower)
    • Right side of the heart: receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation
    • Left side of the heart: receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body
  • Importance of the heart and circulation:
    • Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
    • Removes waste products from the tissues
    • Maintains fluid balance and regulates blood pressure

Blood Components

  • Plasma: the liquid component of blood, making up about 55% of total blood volume
    • Contains water, proteins, electrolytes, hormones, gases, and waste products
  • Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells):
    • Disc-shaped cells that lack a nucleus and most organelles
    • Primary function: transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carry carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs
  • Platelets: small, irregularly shaped cell fragments derived from megakaryocytes
    • Crucial for blood clotting (hemostasis)
  • Leukocytes (White Blood Cells): nucleated cells involved in the immune response
    • Classified into several types, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

  • Blood pressure: the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries
  • Blood pressure reading: "120/80" refers to systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80)
  • Vasodilation and vasoconstriction:
    • Vasodilation: increased blood flow to the tissues, allowing for increased oxygen delivery and removal of waste products
    • Vasoconstriction: decreased blood flow to the tissues, reducing blood pressure and cardiac output

Cardiac Cycle and Heart Rate

  • Cardiac cycle: the sequence of events that occurs in the heart from one heartbeat to the next

  • Heart rate: the number of heartbeats per minute

  • Cardiac output: the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute

  • Calculation of cardiac output: CO = HR × SV### Giraffe's Circulatory System

  • Giraffes' unique challenge: circulating blood effectively due to tall stature

  • Large, powerful, and muscular heart to pump blood against gravity

  • Thick-walled blood vessels to maintain blood pressure and prevent collapse

  • Specialized adaptations: high arterial blood pressure and one-way valves in neck arteries to prevent backflow when lowering head to drink

  • Oxygenated blood reaches all parts of body, including brain, even when standing upright

Cardiac Cycle

  • Sequence of events in one complete heart beat: cardiac cycle
  • Pumping phase: systole (heart muscle contracts)
  • Filling phase: diastole (heart muscle relaxes)
  • Atrial systole: contraction of atria, forcing blood into ventricles
  • Ventricular systole: ventricles contract, forcing blood into arteries

Blood Flow Regulation

  • Blood flow to and from cells changes in response to cellular activity
  • Two ways to change blood flow: heart output and blood vessel diameter
  • Vasodilation: widening of blood vessels, increasing blood flow and decreasing blood pressure
  • Vasoconstriction: narrowing of blood vessels, decreasing blood flow and increasing blood pressure

Importance of Papillary Muscles

  • Located in ventricles, connected to atrioventricular valves via chordae tendineae
  • Prevent inversion or prolapse of valves during ventricular contraction
  • Contract just before ventricles contract, tensioning chordae tendineae and preventing valve backflow

Pulmonary Artery

  • Carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs for oxygenation
  • Right side of heart receives deoxygenated blood from body and pumps to lungs for oxygenation

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