Human Heart Anatomy Quiz

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18 Questions

Where does the coronary sulcus lie in relation to the heart structure?

Between the atria and the ventricles

What separates the left and right atria?

Interatrial septum

Which valve is composed of three flaps known as cusps?

Tricuspid valve

What anatomical structure attaches the cusps of the atrioventricular valve to the cardiac skeleton?

Chordae tendineae

Where does the right atrium receive deoxygenated blood from?

Body return via superior/inferior vena cava

Which cardiac chamber does the blood pass into after leaving the right atrium?

Right ventricle

What is the main responsibility of the cardiovascular system?

Stabilizing levels of gases, nutrients, and waste

Which of the following is NOT a function of the pericardium?

Contracting to pump blood through the heart

What is the purpose of the pulmonary circuit in the cardiovascular system?

Carries blood to the lungs for oxygenation

Where does blood from the systemic circuit return to in order to complete its cycle?

Left atrium

What is the main function of the ventricles in the heart?

Pump blood to the body

Which part of the heart covers the outer surface and is also known as the epicardium?

Visceral layer

Which is the correct function of the left atrium in the heart?

Receiving oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins

Which valve allows blood to move from the left atrium to the left ventricle?

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

What is the primary function of the left ventricle in the heart?

Pumping oxygenated blood to the body

Which heart valve prevents the backflow of blood from the ascending aorta into the left ventricle?

Aortic valve

What type of cells in the heart establish the rate of contraction?

Nodal cells

What type of contraction is defined as the relaxation of the heart?

Diastole

Study Notes

Heart Structure

  • A shallow interatrial groove separates the left and right atria.
  • A deeper coronary sulcus separates the atria from the ventricles.
  • The anterior interventricular sulcus separates the left and right ventricles on the anterior side.
  • The posterior interventricular sulcus separates the left and right ventricles on the posterior side.

Blood Flow and Separation

  • Blood flows from each atrium to the ventricle on the same side of the heart.
  • The interatrial septum separates the atria.
  • The interventricular septum separates the ventricles.

Valves and Septa

  • The valves are folds of endocardium that extend into the openings between the atria and ventricles.
  • The right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) has three cusps that attach to the cardiac skeleton through chordae tendineae.
  • The left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) has two cusps.

Cardiac Circulation

  • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava.
  • Blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle.
  • The right ventricle tapers to the conus arteriosus, ending at the pulmonary valve.
  • Blood leaves the right ventricle via the pulmonary trunk and then to the left and right pulmonary arteries.

Cardiovascular System

  • The cardiovascular system relies on the heart to stabilize the levels of gases, nutrients, and waste.
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) monitors the interstitial fluid and adjusts heart rate.
  • The heart pumps between 5-30 liters of blood per minute.

Heart Overview

  • The heart is a small organ, roughly the size of a fist.
  • It consists of four chambers: two atria and two ventricles.
  • The heart pumps blood through a network of blood vessels, divided into two circuits: pulmonary and systemic.

Pericardium

  • The pericardium surrounds the heart and consists of two parts: an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner serous pericardium.
  • The serous pericardium is composed of an outer parietal layer and an inner visceral layer (epicardium).

Heart Wall

  • A section through the heart wall reveals three distinct layers: the visceral layer or epicardium, the myocardium, and the endocardium.

Cardiac Cycle

  • The heart functions in a cycle of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).
  • The heart beats under myostatic, autorhythmic control.
  • The heart contains specialized conducting cells, including nodal cells that establish the rate of contraction.

Test your knowledge on the anatomy of the human heart, including the path of oxygenated blood flow, the structures involved, and their functions. Identify key features like the left atrioventricular valve and the differences between the left and right ventricles.

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