Homeostasis and Feedback Loops

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What is the main purpose of homeostasis?

Maintaining the extracellular fluid at a specific set point

Which of the following is an example of a regulated variable?

Body temperature

What is the role of the integration center in a feedback loop?

Decide on actions based on changes to the regulated variable

Which component of a feedback loop acts as a working organ or part of the body that elicits a response?

Effector

In homeostasis, are normal fluctuations expected in regulated variables such as body temperature?

Yes, regulated variables can experience normal fluctuations

Why is regulating the extracellular fluid more efficient for maintaining homeostasis than regulating the intracellular fluid for each individual cell?

The extracellular fluid has a more significant impact on overall body function

What are the three different types of individual sugar units mentioned in the text?

Glucose, fructose, and galactose

Which structure is described as having hydrophobic phosphate heads and hydrophilic tails?

Phospholipid bilayer

What is the inner core of a micelle composed of?

Fatty acid tails and water

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino acids

What differentiates between different types of amino acids?

The R group

What type of groups determine the functionality of an amino acid?

R groups

Which type of sugar unit is known as 'milk sugar'?

Galactose

In which structure does the hydrophobic property of phosphate heads face outward?

Micelle

Which type of sugar unit is mainly found in fruits and honey?

Fructose

What is the main component of the inner core of a micelle?

Fatty acids and water

Which type of feedback loop is commonly found in the body, and is associated with corrective actions to return back to homeostasis?

Negative feedback

What does the pancreas release in response to an increase in blood glucose levels?

Insulin

What type of molecule is at the center of much of the biomolecules discussed in the text?

Carbon

What functional group is indicated by the chemical formula OH and has a polar property?

Hydroxyl group

Which type of biomolecule is made up of monosaccharides?

Carbohydrates

In what situation does positive feedback occur according to the text?

During ovulation

What is the terminal signal that stops the positive feedback loop during ovulation?

Ova release from ovaries

What effect does a hydroxyl group have on a biomolecule?

Makes it polar

What action signals the uterus to contract with more force during childbirth?

Head leaning against cervix

Which molecule is released by the pituitary gland in the example of positive feedback given in the text?

Luteinizing hormone

What does the release of luteinizing hormone lead to in the ovaries?

Release of estrogen

What is the role of insulin in response to increased blood glucose levels?

It decreases blood glucose levels.

Study Notes

Homeostasis

  • The main purpose of homeostasis is to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment.
  • Regulated variables, such as body temperature, are controlled to maintain homeostasis.
  • Normal fluctuations are expected in regulated variables, such as body temperature.

###feedback Loop

  • The integration center plays a crucial role in a feedback loop, receiving and processing information to trigger a response.
  • The effector acts as a working organ or part of the body that elicits a response in a feedback loop.
  • Regulating the extracellular fluid is more efficient for maintaining homeostasis than regulating the intracellular fluid for each individual cell.

Carbohydrates

  • The three types of individual sugar units mentioned are glucose, galactose, and fructose.
  • Lactose is known as 'milk sugar'.
  • Fructose is mainly found in fruits and honey.

Phospholipids

  • Phospholipids have hydrophobic phosphate heads and hydrophilic tails.
  • The inner core of a micelle is composed of hydrophobic tails.
  • In a liposome, the hydrophobic property of phosphate heads faces outward.

Proteins

  • The building blocks of proteins are amino acids.
  • Different types of amino acids are differentiated by their R groups.
  • The functionality of an amino acid is determined by its R group.

Positive Feedback

  • Positive feedback is commonly found in the body and is associated with corrective actions to return back to homeostasis.
  • Positive feedback occurs during ovulation, where a surge in luteinizing hormone triggers a greater response.
  • The terminal signal that stops the positive feedback loop during ovulation is the release of progesterone.
  • The release of oxytocin signals the uterus to contract with more force during childbirth.

Biomolecules

  • The molecule at the center of much of the biomolecules discussed is carbon.
  • A hydroxyl group (OH) is a functional group with a polar property.
  • Biomolecules made up of monosaccharides are classified as carbohydrates.
  • The effect of a hydroxyl group on a biomolecule is to make it polar.
  • Insulin is released in response to increased blood glucose levels, and its role is to lower blood glucose levels.

Test your knowledge about homeostasis and feedback loops. Understand how the body maintains its internal environment through the regulation of extracellular fluid and feedback loops.

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