History of Engineering: Ancient Innovations and Structures
12 Questions
3 Views
3.7 Stars

History of Engineering: Ancient Innovations and Structures

Explore the history of engineering with a focus on ancient innovations and structures such as stone-bladed axes, Egyptian pyramids, Kingdom of Kush pyramids, and Roman road building. Learn about the function of engineers in different civilizations.

Created by
@NicestBodhran

Questions and Answers

The manufacture of cars and household appliances is a modern activity.

True

Engineering encompasses areas such as research, design, and testing, but not manufacturing.

False

Engineers in organization level three have minimal engineering jobs similar to retailing firms.

False

An engineer in a level one organization has ample opportunity to rise to the position of president or general manager.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Preventing and solving crimes is not listed as one of the needed results in the text.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The engineer may work as a consultant for any individual or organization.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

The stone-bladed axe was invented between 6000 and 3000 B.C.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

The pyramids in Egypt were built between 1000 and 3000 B.C.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

80 pyramids were built within the Kingdom of Egypt.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Gunpowder was invented by the Romans.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Steam engines primarily work by heating water with coal.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Weaving is the process of making yarn from fibers.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Ancient Innovations

  • Between 6000 and 3000 B.C., the stone-bladed axe and irrigation systems promoted crop growth.
  • The pyramids of Egypt were built between 3000 and 600 B.C., with at least 118 identified pyramids.
  • The Kingdom of Kush (Sudan) built around 80 pyramids.

Ancient Roman Innovations

  • The Romans built roads between 600 B.C. and A.D. 400 using a layered system:
    • A layer of dry sand
    • A layer of medium-to-large stones (statumen)
    • A layer of small gravel mixed with cement (rudus)
    • A layer of sand mixed with cement (nucleus)
    • A top layer of flat, wide stones (summum dorsum)

Chinese Innovations

  • Between 100 A.D. and 1600 A.D., the Chinese produced paper and gunpowder.
  • Early Chinese paper was made from mulberry tree bark fibers.
  • Later, hemp rags and old fish nets were added to the pulp to make higher-quality paper.
  • The first gunpowder was made by mixing potassium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal.

Industrial Revolution

  • Between 1601 A.D. and 1799 A.D., steam engines and spinning and weaving machinery were produced.
  • Steam engines work by burning fuel (primarily coal) to heat water in a boiler.
  • The process of making yarn from fibers is called spinning.
  • The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called weaving.

Modern Era

  • In modern times, cars and household appliances are mass-produced.
  • Production vehicles or production cars are mass-produced models of automobiles.
  • A home appliance, also referred to as a domestic appliance, is a device that performs a specific function.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • New or improved results are greatly needed in the following problem areas:
    • Producing more food for a fast-growing world population
    • Eliminating air and water pollution
    • Solid waste disposal and materials recycling
    • Reducing noise in various forms
    • Supplying the increasing demand for energy
    • Supplying the increasing demand for mobility
    • Preventing and solving crimes
    • Meeting the increasing demand for communication facilities

The Function of Engineering

  • Research: studying nature and translating information into practical theories
  • Design and development: transforming an idea into a tangible object
  • Testing: testing the viability of new components
  • Manufacturing: managing the manufacturing team
  • Construction: ensuring the quality of the construction process
  • Sales: helping customers satisfy their needs
  • Consulting: working as a consultant for individuals or organizations
  • Government: working for the government in regulation, monitoring, and managing operations
  • Teaching: teaching engineering courses in schools
  • Management: supervising teams of individuals carrying out duties

Engineers in Organizations

  • Level One: minimal engineering jobs (e.g., retailing firms)
  • Level Two: moderate degree of engineering jobs (e.g., transportation companies)
  • Level Three: high degree of engineering jobs (e.g., construction firms)
  • Engineers have varying opportunities for advancement in these organizations.

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser