The Battle of Hastings

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What was the outcome of the Battle of Stamford Bridge?

Tostig and Hardrada were victorious

How many people are estimated to have died in the Battle of Hastings?

4000

Where was the high altar of the abbey church placed?

At the spot where Harold died

Study Notes

  • In early 1066, King Edward the Confessor died, leaving a succession struggle between several claimants to his throne.
  • Harold was crowned king shortly after Edwards death, but faced invasions by William, his own brother Tostig, and the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada (Harold III of Norway).
  • Hardrada and Tostig defeated a hastily gathered army of Englishmen at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September 1066, and were in turn defeated by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge five days later.
  • The deaths of Tostig and Hardrada at Stamford Bridge left William as Harolds only serious opponent.
  • While Harold and his forces were recovering, William landed his invasion forces in the south of England at Pevensey on 28 September 1066 and established a beachhead for his conquest of the kingdom.
  • Harold was forced to march south swiftly, gathering forces as he went.
  • The composition of the forces is clearer: the English army was composed almost entirely of infantry and had few archers, whereas only about half of the invading force was infantry, the rest split equally between cavalry and archers.
  • Harold appears to have tried to surprise William, but scouts found his army and reported its arrival to William, who marched from Hastings to the battlefield to confront Harold.
  • The battle lasted from about 9 am to dusk.
  • Early efforts of the invaders to break the English battle lines had little effect.
  • Therefore, the Normans adopted the tactic of pretending to flee in panic and then turning on their pursuers.
  • Harolds death, probably near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his army.
  • After further marching and some skirmishes, William was crowned as king on Christmas Day 1066.
  • There continued to be rebellions and resistance to Williams rule, but Hastings effectively marked the culmination of Williams conquest of England.
  • Casualty figures are hard to come by, but some historians estimate that 2,000 invaders died along with about twice that number of Englishmen.
  • William founded a monastery at the site of the battle, the high altar of the abbey church supposedly placed at the spot where Harold died.

Test your knowledge about the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066, a pivotal event in English history that led to the Norman conquest of England.

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