## Questions and Answers

In three dimensions, how is the distance between two points calculated?

What is the formula to calculate the distance between two points in two dimensions?

Which trigonometric function relates the length of the side opposite an angle to the length of the hypotenuse in a right triangle?

How is translation in geometry mathematically expressed?

Signup and view all the answers

What is the range of values for radians in angle measurements?

Signup and view all the answers

Which function gives the ratio of the side opposite an angle to the side adjacent to that angle in a right triangle?

Signup and view all the answers

What is the equation of a line passing through the point (3, 4) and parallel to the x-axis?

Signup and view all the answers

In a 3D coordinate system, what is the distance between the points A(1, 2, 3) and B(4, 5, 6)?

Signup and view all the answers

If a line has a slope of -3/2 and passes through the point (2, 5), what is the equation of this line?

Signup and view all the answers

For a line with equation y = 2x - 3, what is its slope?

Signup and view all the answers

What is the equation of a line perpendicular to y = -2x + 4 and passing through the point (1, 3)?

Signup and view all the answers

In a 2D coordinate system, what is the midpoint of the line segment with endpoints at (-3, 2) and (5, -6)?

Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

## Geometry Basics

Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with points, lines, shapes, sizes, positions, orientations, and dimensions. It's one of the oldest branches of mathematics known to mankind and has been used throughout history to describe physical objects and space itself. Geometry includes various fields like Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometries, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, topology, and more. In this article, we will focus on two specific areas within the field of geometry: coordinate geometry and trigonometry.

## Coordinate Geometry

Coordinate geometry deals with the study of geometric figures using coordinates and distances between them. This system allows us to represent points on a plane or in three-dimensional space. Here are some key concepts in coordinate geometry:

### Points and Lines

In coordinate geometry, a point on a 2D plane can be represented by its `(x, y)`

coordinates. A line can be defined by its slope and y-intercept, which gives it a unique equation. For example, if we have a line whose y-coordinate increases at a rate of 2 for every unit increase in x, and passes through the point (1, 1), then the equation of the line would be `y = 2x + 1`

. Similarly, a line passing through the origin and parallel to the y-axis has the equation `y = mx`

, where `m`

represents the slope.

### Distance Formulas

The distance formula helps find the straight-line distance between any two given points in two or three dimensional coordinate systems. In 2D and 3D, it calculates as follows:

#### Two Dimensions

Distance `d`

between two points `(a, b)`

and `(c, d)`

is given by:

```
d = sqrt((x2 - x1)^2 + (y2 - y1)^2)
```

Here, `sqrt()`

denotes square root, and `(x2 - x1)`

and `(y2 - y1)`

are differences of respective coordinates.

#### Three Dimensions

For three dimensions, the distance `d`

between two points `(a, b, c)`

and `(d, e, f)`

is given by:

```
d = sqrt((x2 - x1)^2 + (y2 - y1)^2 + (z2 - z1)^2)
```

This extension accounts for the third dimension `z`

when calculating distances in three dimensions.

### Translation and Reflection

Translation moves all the points of a figure along lines — keeping their ratios fixed; reflection reverses direction across perpendicular mirrors while preserving proportions. Translation can be expressed mathematically by adding multiples of vectors to the coordinates of all points within the shape. Reflection involves creating new points by reversing the sign of components of those points' coordinates corresponding to the normal vector (direction vector) of the mirror.

## Trigonometry

Trigonometry focuses on angles and relationships among the sides of triangles and other polygons. Sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan), cotangent (cot), secant (sec), and cosecant (csc) functions form the core of this branch of mathematics. These functions help solve problems related to angles, lengths of sides, and the position of a moving object in terms of time. Some fundamental ideas in trigonometry include:

### Angle Measurements

An angle is a measure of the rotation around a point. Its size depends on how much it changes from one side of the original axis to the other side. There are two ways to express angle measurements: degrees and radians. Degrees measure angles from 0 to 360 units, while radians range from 0 to 2π units. One full circle equals 360° or 2π radians.

### Sine, Cosine, & Tangent Functions

For a right triangle, where one angle is 90°, the trigonometric functions are defined as follows:

- Sine (sin) of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
- Cosine (cos) of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side adjacent to the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
- Tangent (tan) of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle.

These functions have inverse functions too: arcsine (arcsin), arccosine (arccos), and arctangent (arctan). These inverse functions return the angle whose sine, cosine, or tangent is given.

## Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

## Description

Explore the fundamental concepts of geometry including coordinate geometry and trigonometry. Learn about points, lines, distance formulas, translation, reflection, angles, and trigonometric functions like sine, cosine, and tangent. Enhance your understanding of geometric figures and spatial relationships.