134 Questions
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# Gas Laws and Gas Exchange Quiz

Created by
@AlluringFoil

### What is the main function of beta2 receptors in the respiratory system?

To relax and dilate the airways

### What is the difference between anatomic dead space and physiologic dead space?

Anatomic dead space is the volume of the conducting airways, while physiologic dead space includes the anatomic dead space plus a functional dead space in the alveoli.

0.8

### What is the main function of the muscarinic receptors in the respiratory system?

<p>To constrict and contract the airways</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main role of the respiratory muscles in the respiratory system?

<p>To increase alveolar ventilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the alveolar gas equation?

<p>To calculate the alveolar ventilation rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the gas laws, if the pressure of a gas increases, what will happen to its volume?

<p>The volume will decrease inversely</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which law describes the relationship between the partial pressures of gases in a mixture?

<p>Dalton's law of partial pressures</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In the alveolar air, the partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) is lower than the inspired air, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PACO2) is higher. What is the reason for this?

<p>Oxygen leaves the alveolar air and enters the pulmonary capillary blood, while carbon dioxide leaves the pulmonary capillary blood and enters the alveolar air</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in mixed venous blood entering the pulmonary capillaries?

<p>40 mm Hg</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term used to describe the situation where the total amount of gas transported across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited by the diffusion process?

<p>Diffusion-limited gas exchange</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when the diffusion distance for gases increases?

<p>The rate of diffusion of oxygen decreases, preventing equilibration between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of the negative intrapleural pressure?

<p>The opposing elastic forces of the lungs and chest wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens if the negative intrapleural pressure is absent?

<p>The lungs collapse, and the chest wall springs out</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At volumes less than the functional residual capacity (FRC), what is the relationship between the collapsing force of the lungs and the expanding force of the chest wall?

<p>The collapsing force of the lungs is less than the expanding force of the chest wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the compliance of the lungs and chest wall as expiration proceeds?

<p>The compliance of the lungs remains constant, but the compliance of the chest wall decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At volumes greater than the functional residual capacity (FRC), what is the relationship between the collapsing force of the lungs and the expanding force of the chest wall?

<p>The collapsing force of the lungs is greater than the expanding force of the chest wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary factor that determines the compliance of the lungs during expiration?

<p>The density of surfactant in the liquid lining</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the passage, what happens when volume is less than the functional residual capacity (FRC)?

<p>The collapsing force of the lungs is smaller, and the expanding force of the chest wall is greater.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of the negative intrapleural pressure described in the passage?

<p>The elastic properties of the lungs tending to collapse.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the compliance of the lungs and chest wall as expiration proceeds, according to the passage?

<p>The compliance of the lungs and chest wall both decrease.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between the collapsing force of the lungs and the expanding force of the chest wall at volumes greater than the functional residual capacity (FRC)?

<p>The collapsing force of the lungs is greater than the expanding force of the chest wall.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary factor that determines the compliance of the lungs during expiration, according to the passage?

<p>The removal of surfactant from the liquid lining of the lungs.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high lung volumes, which of the following is true regarding the resistance of alveolar vessels?

<p>Resistance increases sharply as alveolar vessels are crushed</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In which lung zone does the highest ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio occur?

<p>Zone 3</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of a left-to-right shunt?

<p>A defect in the wall between the right and left ventricles</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the normal value for the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio?

<p>0.8</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is a consequence of low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio?

<p>Increased carbon dioxide retention</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary function of the conducting zone of the respiratory system?

<p>To transport air to and from the respiratory zone</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the result of a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs?

<p>Decreased oxygen delivery to the tissues</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following scenarios represents a high V/Q ratio?

<p>Pulmonary embolism, where blood flow to certain alveoli is blocked</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of a low V/Q ratio?

<p>Airway obstruction, such as in chronic bronchitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the effect of a high V/Q ratio on arterial blood gases?

<p>Decreased PaO₂ and increased PaCO₂</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary function of erythropoietin (EPO) in the body?

<p>To regulate the production of red blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following best describes the Bohr effect?

<p>The decrease in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin due to an increase in carbon dioxide levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In which part of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve does a shift to the right occur?

<p>At low partial pressures of oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary consequence of a low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio in the lungs?

<p>Decreased arterial oxygen tension</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following best describes the relationship between the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the alveolar air?

<p>The PO2 is lower and the PCO2 is higher in the alveolar air compared to inspired air.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term used to describe the situation where the total amount of gas transported across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited by the diffusion process?

<p>Diffusion-limited gas exchange</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary factor that determines the compliance of the lungs during expiration?

<p>The collapsing force of the lungs</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the mixed venous blood entering the pulmonary capillaries?

<p>40 mm Hg</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the gas laws, if the pressure of a gas increases, what will happen to its volume?

<p>The volume will decrease</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary role of deoxyhemoglobin in the transport of carbon dioxide?

<p>It buffers the hydrogen ions (H+) produced during the dissociation of carbonic acid.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are transported from red blood cells to the plasma?

<p>Exchange with chloride ions (Cl-) across the red blood cell membrane.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What would be the consequence if the hydrogen ions (H+) produced during the dissociation of carbonic acid were not buffered in red blood cells?

<p>Acidification of red blood cells and venous blood.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which enzyme plays a critical role in the transport of carbon dioxide in red blood cells?

<p>Carbonic anhydrase</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary driving force for the diffusion of carbon dioxide across cell membranes and into red blood cells?

<p>Partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What characterizes dead space in the lungs?

<p>High ventilation relative to perfusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In regions of high V/Q, what is the typical characteristic?

<p>High ventilation compared to perfusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a characteristic of regions with low V/Q ratios?

<p>Low ventilation relative to perfusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What condition is associated with a V/Q ratio of 0?

<p>Right-to-left shunt</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main difference between dead space and high V/Q regions?

<p>Presence of some blood flow in high V/Q regions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when pulmonary capillary blood comes from regions with low V/Q ratios?

<p>Low PO2 and high PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which scenario best describes a high V/Q situation?

<p>Increased ventilation compared to perfusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the passage, what is the primary cause of a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs?

<p>Decreased alveolar ventilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitude, where the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the inspired air is lower, what effect would this have on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>The curve would shift to the right, reducing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the blood?

<p>Decreases the PCO2 due to increased elimination of CO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In regions of the lungs with a high ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio, what is the typical characteristic?

<p>High PO2 and low PCO2 in the alveolar air</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood?

<p>Dissolved in the plasma as bicarbonate ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What effect does an increase in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) concentration have on O2 affinity to hemoglobin?

<p>Reduces O2 affinity</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Under hypoxic conditions, what stimulates the production of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) in red blood cells?

<p>Decreased O2 levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the impact of hyperventilation on arterial blood O2 levels?

<p>Decreases O2 levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the kidney distinguish between a lack of red blood cells and a lack of oxygen based on the text?

<p>By filtration and reabsorption of Na+</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens in the tissues with CO2 produced from aerobic metabolism according to the passage?

<p>CO2 is converted into bicarbonate ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the partial pressure gradient for oxygen in the capillary at high altitudes?

<p>It decreases, leading to a slower equilibration of oxygen in the capillary.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on blood pH and oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation?

<p>Increases blood pH and shifts the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the left.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What occurs about one-third of the way along the pulmonary capillary in terms of oxygen equilibration?

<p>Partial equilibration begins as PaO2 equals PAO2.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary consequence of a decrease in PCO2 in terms of hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

<p>Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen decreases, promoting oxygen release.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How do increases in PCO2 contribute to changes in blood pH and hemoglobin's oxygen-carrying capacity?

<p>Increases in PCO2 result in decreased blood pH and reduced hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitude, where the partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) is reduced throughout the lungs, what is the primary effect on pulmonary blood flow?

<p>Decreased pulmonary blood flow to poorly ventilated regions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right in response to high altitude hypoxia?

<p>Increased blood pH due to respiratory alkalosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the alveolar air?

<p>Decreases PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood from the tissues to the lungs?

<p>Transported as bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions in the plasma</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of the Cl--HCO3- exchange (Cl- shift) mediated by the band 3 protein in red blood cells?

<p>Facilitates the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary driving force for the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from tissues into red blood cells?

<p>Partial pressure gradient for CO2 between tissues and blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary function of deoxyhemoglobin in the transport of carbon dioxide?

<p>Buffering hydrogen ions (H+) produced from carbonic acid dissociation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What would be the consequence if the hydrogen ions (H+) produced during the dissociation of carbonic acid were not buffered in red blood cells?

<p>Acidification of red blood cells and venous blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following best describes the Bohr effect?

<p>Decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen at lower pH levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are transported from red blood cells to the plasma?

<p>Exchange with chloride ions (Cl-) across the red blood cell membrane</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which increased temperature causes a rightward shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Increased temperature decreases the binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>It causes a leftward shift, increasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is the primary effect of low ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q) ratios on arterial blood gas values?

<p>Decreased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and increased arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which erythropoietin (EPO) increases oxygen delivery to the tissues?

<p>EPO stimulates the production of new red blood cells, increasing the total hemoglobin concentration.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of high altitude exposure on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>It causes a rightward shift, decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### During exercise, why does the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve shift to the right?

<p>Decreased ventilation rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In high altitudes where alveolar PO2 is low, what stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors?

<p>Increased arterial PO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What effect does hyperventilation have on the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Shifts it to the left</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What stimulates the medullary inspiratory center to increase breathing rate?

<p>Alveolar PO2 of 60 mm Hg</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to arterial blood PO2 at high altitudes with low alveolar PO2?

<p>Decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary reason for an increase in ventilation rate during exercise?

<p>Muscle and joint receptor signals</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What causes the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the right during exercise?

<p>Increased temperature and decreased tissue pH</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What response is triggered by severe hypoxemia due to low alveolar PO2 levels?

<p>Hypoxemia in peripheral receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What changes in temperature and tissue pH contribute to the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve shift during exercise?

<p>Increases in temperature and decreased tissue pH</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitude, where the partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) is reduced throughout the lungs, what is the primary effect on pulmonary blood flow?

<p>Pulmonary blood flow increases to compensate for the lower PAO2.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How do increases in PCO2 contribute to changes in blood pH and hemoglobin's oxygen-carrying capacity?

<p>Increases in PCO2 lead to a decrease in pH, which causes hemoglobin to release more oxygen to the tissues.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on blood pH and oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation?

<p>Hyperventilation increases blood pH, causing a rightward shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which increased temperature causes a rightward shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Increased temperature increases the production of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells, which reduces hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitude, where the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the inspired air is lower, what effect would this have on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve would shift to the right, reducing hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) concentration in red blood cells causes a rightward shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Increased 2,3DPG binds to deoxyhemoglobin, decreasing its affinity for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Hyperventilation causes the curve to shift to the left, increasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does high altitude exposure affect the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>High altitude exposure causes the curve to shift to the right, decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of a low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio in the lungs?

<p>A low V/Q ratio leads to decreased oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levels in the arterial blood.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood from the tissues to the lungs?

<p>Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-).</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the left in response to hyperventilation?

<p>Decreased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitudes with low alveolar PO2, what is the primary effect on blood oxygen levels?

<p>Decreased hemoglobin affinity for oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2)?

<p>Decreased PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In regions with high ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q) ratios, what is the primary characteristic of gas exchange?

<p>Diffusion limited gas exchange</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the shift in the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right affect pulmonary capillary blood in terms of CO2 transport?

<p>Enhances CO2-hemoglobin binding</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is the primary mechanism by which the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right in response to high altitude hypoxia?

<p>Increased production of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) in red blood cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on blood pH and the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Increased blood pH and a left shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the kidney distinguish between a lack of red blood cells and a lack of oxygen, according to the passage?

<p>The kidney monitors the difference between renal oxygen delivery and renal oxygen consumption</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following effects is NOT typically associated with hyperventilation?

<p>Left shift of the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood?

<p>Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitudes where alveolar PO2 is low, what effect would this have on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>Right shift of the curve</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which statement best describes how CO2 is primarily transported in the blood?

<p>As bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In regions of the lungs with a high ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio, what is the typical characteristic?

<p>High partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right during exercise?

<p>Increased tissue PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?

<p>It shifts the curve to the left, increasing hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### At high altitudes with low alveolar PO2, what is the primary effect on arterial blood PO2?

<p>Arterial blood PO2 decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs?

<p>Decreased arterial PO2 and increased PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood from the tissues to the lungs?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary cause of a low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio in the lungs?

<p>Decreased pulmonary blood flow</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of a high ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio on arterial blood gases?

<p>Increased arterial PO2 and decreased PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which erythropoietin (EPO) increases oxygen delivery to the tissues?

<p>Increases red blood cell production</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of a decrease in PCO2 on hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

<p>Increases hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary consequence of a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs?

<p>Decreased arterial PO2 and increased PCO2</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the passage, what is the primary mechanism by which hypoxic vasoconstriction in the lungs occurs?

<p>Decreased partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) in alveolar gas leads to constriction of pulmonary arterioles, reducing blood flow to poorly ventilated regions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right in response to high altitude hypoxia?

<p>Increased production of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) in red blood cells, which decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary effect of hyperventilation on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the alveolar air?

<p>Hyperventilation decreases PCO2 in the alveolar air, leading to an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### According to the passage, what is the primary factor regulating the distribution of pulmonary blood flow?

<p>The partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) in the alveolar gas.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary mechanism by which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood from the tissues to the lungs?

<p>As bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in the plasma, facilitated by the chloride shift.</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Gas Laws

• General gas law: P1.V1 = P2.V2, where P is pressure and V is volume
• Boyle's law: if P increases, V decreases, and vice versa
• Dalton's law of partial pressures: the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas
• Henry's law: the concentration of a dissolved gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas
• Fick's law: the rate of diffusion of a gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure gradient

### Gas Exchange

• In alveolar air, PAO2 is 100 mm Hg, and PACO2 is 40 mm Hg
• O2 leaves alveolar air and enters pulmonary capillary blood, while CO2 leaves pulmonary capillary blood and enters alveolar air
• Blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is mixed venous blood, with PO2 = 40 mm Hg and PCO2 = 46 mm Hg
• Diffusion limited gas exchange: the total amount of gas transported across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited by the diffusion process
• Perfusion limited gas exchange: the total amount of gas transported across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited by blood flow

### Oxygen Transport

• O2 is bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells
• O2 binding capacity and O2 content: O2 is transported from the lungs to the tissues
• O2 hemoglobin dissociation curve: O2 is released from hemoglobin in response to decreasing pH and increasing temperature
• O2 delivery to tissues: O2 is released from hemoglobin in response to decreasing pH and increasing temperature
• Erythropoietin (EPO): a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in response to hypoxia

### Carbon Dioxide Transport

• CO2 is produced in the tissues from aerobic metabolism
• CO2 is transported in the blood in the form of HCO3- and carbaminohemoglobin
• CO2 transport in the blood: CO2 is transported from the tissues to the lungs
• HCO3- and Cl- exchange: an anion exchange protein called band three protein facilitates the exchange of HCO3- and Cl- across the red blood cell membrane

### Pulmonary Blood Flow

• Pulmonary blood flow is directly proportional to the pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and the left atrium
• Pulmonary blood flow is inversely proportional to the resistance of the pulmonary vasculature
• Hypoxic vasoconstriction: decreases in PAO2 produce pulmonary vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to poorly ventilated areas of the lung
• At high altitude, PAO2 is reduced, producing global vasoconstriction of pulmonary arterioles and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance

### Regulation of Pulmonary Blood Flow

• The major factor regulating pulmonary blood flow is the partial pressure of O2 in alveolar gas, PAO2
• Decreases in PAO2 produce pulmonary vasoconstriction, reducing blood flow to poorly ventilated areas of the lung
• Hypoxic vasoconstriction mechanism: not well understood
• Fetal circulation: another example of global hypoxic vasoconstriction### Gas Laws
• Boyle's Law: P1.V1 = P2.V2, where an increase in pressure (P) results in a decrease in volume (V), and vice versa
• Gas laws include Dalton's law of partial pressures and Henry's law for concentrations of dissolved gases
• Diffusion of gases follows Fick's law

### Gas Exchange

• In alveolar air, PO2 is 100 mm Hg, lower than in inspired air, while PCO2 is 40 mm Hg, higher than in inspired air
• O2 leaves alveolar air and enters pulmonary capillary blood, while CO2 leaves pulmonary capillary blood and enters alveolar air
• Blood entering pulmonary capillaries is mixed venous blood with a low PO2 (40 mm Hg) and high PCO2 (46 mm Hg)

### Respiratory System

• Conducting zone includes the nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
• Respiratory zone includes respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
• Blood flow and ventilation rates affect gas exchange in the lungs
• Anatomic dead space is the volume of conducting airways that do not participate in gas exchange (approximately 150 ml in normal persons)

### Oxygen Transport

• O2 binds to hemoglobin in blood, with a binding capacity and content that affects O2 delivery to tissues
• O2 hemoglobin dissociation curve shows the relationship between PO2 and O2 saturation
• Changes in the curve occur due to factors like pH, temperature, and 2,3-BPG levels
• Erythropoietin (EPO) is induced in response to hypoxia, leading to increased red blood cell production

### Ventilation and Perfusion

• Ventilation (V̇) and perfusion (Q̇) ratios affect gas exchange in the lungs
• Ventilation/perfusion relationships can be affected by factors like pulmonary embolism and shunts
• Dead space is ventilation of lung regions that are not perfused
• High V̇/Q̇ regions have high ventilation relative to perfusion, while low V̇/Q̇ regions have low ventilation relative to perfusion
• Right-to-left shunts occur when perfusion of lung regions occurs without ventilation

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## Description

Test your knowledge on gas laws including Boyle's law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, Henry's law, and gas exchange processes in the lungs. Understand how changes in pressure and volume affect the behavior of gases.

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