Fundamental Concepts of Biology

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18 Questions

What is anabolism?

The synthesis of complex molecules requiring energy

Which of the following is an example of irritability in plants?

Phototropism

What is negative phototropism?

Plant growth away from a light source

What is the fundamental property of living organisms related to maintaining internal balance?

Response to external stimuli

Which biomolecule makes up about 60% of the human body, especially in the brain?

Water

What are seres vivos according to the text?

Open and self-regulating systems that exchange matter and energy

What are viruses, nuclei, ribosomes, and mitochondria in relation to living beings?

Supramolecular structures that assemble to form a cell

What is the study of Biology primarily concerned with?

Exploring the fundamental properties of living organisms

What is the primary focus of Biology according to the text?

The investigation of living organisms and their interactions

Which of the following elements is NOT mentioned as a part of various biomolecules in the human body?

Nitrogen

What is the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the human body according to the text?

It enters and leaves the body but is classified as a macromolecule due to its size

Which of the following is NOT a macromolecule mentioned in the text?

Iodine

What is the fundamental property of living organisms related to maintaining internal balance according to the text?

Homeostasis or the ability to maintain internal balance

What is the primary purpose of anabolism in cells?

To synthesize complex molecules and require energy

What is the primary purpose of catabolism in cells?

To break down complex molecules and release energy

What is the primary function of phototropism in plants?

To grow towards a light source

What is the primary difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?

Asexual reproduction produces identical offspring, while sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse offspring.

What is the primary benefit of sexual reproduction for the survival of a species?

It ensures the survival of the species through genetically diverse offspring.

Study Notes

  • The text is about the fundamental concepts of Biology, focusing on why it's important to study.
  • Biology is the study of life, a natural and experimental science.
  • It investigates living organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment.
  • Seres vivos are open and self-regulating systems that exchange matter and energy.
  • Humans are made up of cells, the basic unit of life, and are composed of various biomolecules like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, and silicon.
  • Water is a crucial biomolecule, making up about 60% of the human body, especially in the brain.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is another important biomolecule, entering and leaving the body but being classified as a macromolecule due to its size.
  • Glucose and proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are other macromolecules.
  • Supramolecular structures like viruses, nuclei, ribosomes, and mitochondria, are not living beings but assemble to form a cell.
  • Cells aggregate to form tissues, which form organs, systems, and eventually individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems.
  • Homeostasis, or the ability to maintain internal balance, is a fundamental property of living organisms.
  • Organisms respond to external stimuli to maintain equilibrium, such as sweating when overheating to prevent excessive temperature rise.
  • Cells carry out metabolic processes, which involve the synthesis (anabolism) and breakdown (catabolism) of biomolecules, releasing or requiring energy.
  • Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules, requiring energy, while catabolism breaks down complex molecules and releases energy.
  • Digestion, for example, breaks down complex food molecules into simpler ones, allowing them to enter the cell and release energy.
  • Irritability, a capacity to respond to stimuli, is another characteristic of living organisms.
  • Plant movements, such as phototropism, are examples of irritability, as they help the plant grow towards sunlight.
  • Nastic movements, like the carnivorous plant's response to insects, are not oriented towards growth.
  • Phototropism is a positive response to light, causing the plant to grow towards it, while phototropism negative causes the plant to grow away from it.- The text discusses various types of tropisms, which are plant and animal responses to stimuli.
  • Phototropism negative is when a plant grows in the opposite direction of a light source, unlike positively geotropic roots that grow towards the earth.
  • Fototaxia is a behavioral response in animals, such as a moth's attraction to a light source, which is either positive or negative depending on the animal's movement towards or away from the light.
  • The pez abisal, a deep-sea fish with no pigmentation, exhibits negative phototaxia by sinking when brought to the surface due to the lack of pigmentation to protect it from light.
  • The metabolism, homeostasis, irritability, and other individual traits discussed in the text benefit the individual rather than the species as a whole.
  • Reproduction, which requires significant energy and time investment, benefits the species as a whole by ensuring survival through offspring.
  • In sexual reproduction, gametes (ovules and spermatozoides) are used for fertilization, while in asexual reproduction, offspring are produced without gametes.
  • The text contrasts asexual reproduction, which is faster and more energy-efficient but produces offspring that are identical to the parent, with sexual reproduction, which takes more time and energy but produces genetically diverse offspring.
  • The text mentions several examples of sexual reproduction, including the mantis religiosa's cannibalistic mating behavior, the widow spider's consumption of the male during mating, and the male octopus's death after mating.
  • Reproduction involves significant energy expenditure and can lead to the sacrifice of the parent organism, ensuring the survival of the species.
  • The text also discusses various differences between asexual and sexual reproduction, including the time and energy investment, the production of genetically diverse offspring, and the absence of gametes in asexual reproduction.

Explore the essential principles of biology and why it is crucial to study. Learn about living organisms, biomolecules, cell structures, metabolic processes, response to stimuli, and the significance of reproduction in ensuring the survival of species.

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