Fish Biology: Form and Movement
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Fish Biology: Form and Movement

Explore the characteristics and adaptations of fish for their aquatic existence, including their body shape, fins, scales, and respiration through gills. Understand the distinct features that set fish apart from other vertebrates.

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@BetterThanExpectedEternity

Questions and Answers

What are the distinguishing characteristics of fish that suit them to their aquatic existence?

Fish have an elongated fusiform body, absence of a neck, presence of fins and scales, and respiration through gills.

What are the two major groups of fish and how do they differ?

The two major groups of fish are cartilaginous fish (Selachians) and bony fish (Osteichthes). Cartilaginous fish include rays and sharks, while bony fish make up the super-order Teleosteii and comprise the majority of present-day fish.

What is the function of the epidermis in fish anatomy?

The epidermis forms the first barrier against microbial penetration, is covered with mucus, and is different from the cornified layer of dead skin covering the outer surface of mammals.

Why is the super-order Teleosteii significant in the context of fish farming?

<p>The super-order Teleosteii comprises the majority of present-day fish and, with the exception of the sturgeon, includes all the fish currently farmed.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are fish scales positioned in relation to the body and what role do they play?

<p>Fish scales are embedded in the dermis and covered by a transparent, fragile layer of cells. They do not form the outermost layer of the body, and any handling that damages this layer can open the way to infections.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the difference between cartilaginous fish and bony fish in terms of their composition and significance to fish farming.

<p>Cartilaginous fish, such as rays and sharks, have skeletons made of cartilage, while bony fish (Osteichthes) have skeletons made of bone. Bony fish, especially those in the super-order Teleosteii, are of significance to fish farming as they comprise the majority of present-day fish and are the ones currently farmed.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Describe the structure and function of the epidermis in fish anatomy, and its role in protecting the fish's body.

<p>The epidermis in fish is covered with mucus and forms the first barrier against microbial penetration. It is different from the cornified layer of dead skin in mammals and is very fragile. Any damage to this layer can open the way to infections which can then spread.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the distinguishing characteristics of fish anatomy that suit them to their aquatic existence?

<p>Fish have an elongated fusiform body which is well adapted to moving in a fluid environment. They also have fins, scales, and respire through gills, among other distinctive characteristics and functions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the significance of the super-order Teleosteii in the context of fish farming and the types of fish it comprises.

<p>The super-order Teleosteii comprises the majority of present-day fish and is significant in fish farming, as with the exception of the sturgeon, all the fish currently farmed belong to this group.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Discuss the positioning and function of fish scales in relation to the fish's body and their role in protecting the fish.

<p>Fish scales are embedded in the dermis and covered by a transparent, fragile layer of cells. They do not form the outermost layer of the body but play a role in protecting the fish. Any handling that damages the scales can open the way to infections.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Characteristics of Fish

  • Fish have distinguishing characteristics that suit them to their aquatic existence, including gills for respiration, fins for movement, and scales for protection.
  • They also have a streamlined body, which reduces water resistance, and a hydrodynamic shape, which enables them to move efficiently through water.

Major Groups of Fish

  • The two major groups of fish are cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (Osteichthyes).
  • Cartilaginous fish have a skeleton made of cartilage, while bony fish have a skeleton made of bone.
  • Cartilaginous fish include sharks, rays, and skates, while bony fish include salmon, cod, and tilapia.

Epidermis in Fish Anatomy

  • The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin in fish, which provides a barrier against the environment.
  • It is composed of epithelial cells, mucous cells, and sensory cells.
  • The epidermis produces mucus, which helps to reduce friction and prevent infection.

Super-Order Teleosteii

  • The super-order Teleosteii is a group of bony fish that comprises over 95% of all fish species.
  • It includes fish such as salmon, trout, and cod, which are commonly farmed for food.
  • The Teleosteii are significant in fish farming due to their fast growth rates, disease resistance, and adaptability to different environments.

Fish Scales

  • Fish scales are positioned in a specific pattern, overlapping each other like roof tiles, to provide protection and reduce friction.
  • Scales are made of keratin, a hard protein, and are constantly being replaced throughout a fish's life.
  • They help to reduce water resistance, making it easier for fish to swim, and also provide protection against predators and the environment.

Cartilaginous vs. Bony Fish

  • Cartilaginous fish have a skeleton made of cartilage, which is lighter and more flexible than bone.
  • Bony fish have a skeleton made of bone, which is heavier and more rigid than cartilage.
  • Cartilaginous fish are generally slower-growing and more vulnerable to disease than bony fish, making them less suitable for fish farming.

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