Femur Anatomy and Functions Quiz

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10 Questions

Which medical condition is characterized by weakened and brittle bones due to bone mass loss?


What is the primary function of the femur?

To transmit forces from the tibia to the hip joint

What is the primary treatment approach for femoral fractures?

Surgical repair with metal screws and plates

Which condition results in pain near the patella due to abnormal alignment or overuse?

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Which condition affects blood flow to the head of the femur?

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

What is the primary function of the femur in the human body?

Supporting the body and facilitating movement

Which part of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis?


What type of bone tissue is mainly found at both ends of the femur?

Spongy bone

Which component gives the femur its strength and resilience?

Calcium phosphate

Where does the distal end of the femur connect in the human body?

Knee joint

Study Notes

Femur: Anatomy, Functions, Bone Structure, Medical Conditions


The femur, also known as the thigh bone, is the longest, heaviest, and strongest human bone. It plays a crucial role in supporting the body and facilitating movement through its connections with other bones and muscles. This article will delve into the composition, functions, and medical conditions associated with this essential bone.

Femur Anatomy


The femur can be divided into three parts: proximal, shaft, and distal. The proximal end articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form the hip joint. It consists of a head and neck, along with two bony processes called the greater and lesser trochanters. These landmarks serve as attachment sites for various muscles and ligaments. The shaft is cylindrical and extends below the head of the femur. It contains both yellow and red bone marrow, which contribute to blood cell production and fat storage. The distal end connects with the tibia and fibula at the knee joint.

Bone Structure

The femur is classified as a long bone, with spongy bone tissue at both ends and a cavity filled with bone marrow in the shaft. It is composed primarily of hydroxyapatite crystals embedded within a matrix of collagen fibers. These properties give the bone its strength and resilience while allowing flexibility in certain areas, like the hip joint.


The primary function of the femur is to transmit forces from the tibia to the hip joint, facilitating movement and supporting the weight of the body. Additionally, it serves as a site for muscle and ligament attachments, providing stability and mobility to the lower extremities.

Medical Conditions


Femoral fractures are common injuries that can occur through high-impact falls, motor vehicle accidents, or other traumatic events. Treatment typically involves surgical repair with metal screws, plates, rods, or other supportive devices followed by several weeks of physical therapy to restore strength and mobility.


As individuals age, their bones gradually lose more mass than they gain, increasing susceptibility to osteoporosis – a condition characterized by weakened and brittle bones. In severe cases, osteoporotic fractures may require invasive surgeries to repair and replace damaged bone tissue.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

This condition causes pain in the front of the knee near the patella due to abnormal alignment or overuse. Treatment options include physical therapy exercises, bracing, or less common procedures like acupuncture or hip arthroscopy.

Other rare conditions that can affect the femur include Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (which affects blood flow to the head of the femur), environmental rickets (a deficiency leading to weakened bones due to low calcium intake), and femoral anteversion (an inward rotation of the femur in childhood).

In conclusion, the femur plays a vital role in our skeletal system, providing support, facilitating movement, and acting as a site for muscle attachment. Understanding its composition and functions is essential for maintaining bone health and addressing potential injuries or medical issues related to this important bone.

Test your knowledge on the anatomy, functions, bone structure, and medical conditions related to the femur, the longest and strongest bone in the human body. Learn about the composition of the femur, its role in supporting the body and facilitating movement, and common medical conditions such as fractures, osteoporosis, and patellofemoral pain syndrome.

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