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Female Reproductive System

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60 Questions

What is the main function of the basal layer of the endometrium?

To house the deep basal ends of the uterine glands

During the proliferative phase, what drives the rapid cell proliferation?

Rising estrogen levels

What is the outcome of the proliferative phase?

The endometrium prepares for the subsequent secretory phase

During the secretory phase, what is produced by the uterine glands?

Glycogen and other nutrients

What is the duration of the secretory phase?

14 days

What is the function of the cervical mucus during ovulation?

To facilitate sperm movement to the uterus

What is the transformation zone?

The area where the simple columnar epithelium changes to stratified squamous epithelium

What happens to the cervix during pregnancy?

It becomes more rigid

What is cervical effacement?

The process of the cervix softening before childbirth

What helps to remove collagen during cervical effacement?

Macrophages

What is the composition of the stroma in the basal layer of the endometrium?

Highly cellular stroma

What is the result of the endometrial growth during the proliferative phase?

Regeneration of the functional layer

What is the characteristic of the glands in the secretory phase?

Coiled and dilated

What is the purpose of the cervical mucus during ovulation?

To facilitate sperm movement

What happens to the cervix during pregnancy?

It becomes more rigid

What is the primary component of the cervix?

Dense connective tissue

What is the purpose of the cervical glands?

To secrete mucus

What is the result of the removal of collagen during cervical effacement?

Softening of the cervix

What is the function of macrophages during cervical effacement?

To remove collagen

What is the outcome of cervical effacement?

The cervix dilates

What is the main characteristic of the functional layer of the endometrium?

It is rich in ground substance

During which phase does the endometrium thicken?

Proliferative phase

What is the outcome of the secretory phase?

Preparation for implantation

What type of epithelium covers the external os?

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

What is the primary function of the cervical glands?

Producing mucus to facilitate sperm movement

What occurs to the cervix during pregnancy?

It becomes more rigid to retain the fetus

What is the result of collagen removal during cervical effacement?

The cervix becomes softer

During which phase is the uterine gland morphology altered?

Secretory phase

What is the characteristic of the stroma in the basal layer of the endometrium?

Highly cellular

What is the function of macrophages during cervical effacement?

Removing collagen

What is the function of the tunica albuginea in the ovary?

To protect the ovary from damage

What is the function of the germinal epithelium in the ovary?

To cover the surface of the ovary

What is the ovarian medulla composed of?

Loose connective tissue and blood vessels

What is the function of the ovarian follicles?

To hold and transport oocytes

What is the basal lamina in an ovarian follicle?

A thin layer that separates the follicle from surrounding tissue

What is the structure of an ovarian follicle?

An oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells within a basal lamina

What happens to the follicle that does not become dominant during a menstrual cycle?

It undergoes atresia

What is the purpose of the zona pellucida?

To facilitate communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells

What is the purpose of inhibin in the menstrual cycle?

To reinforce the negative feedback of estrogen and progesterone

What is the function of the theca interna?

To secrete androstenedione

What is the fate of the corpus luteum in the absence of pregnancy?

It undergoes apoptosis and is replaced by the corpus albicans

What is the function of the LH surge during ovulation?

To complete meiosis I and induce ovulation

What is the main difference between a unilaminar primary follicle and a multilaminar primary follicle?

The number of layers of granulosa cells

What is the main component of follicular fluid?

Hyaluronic acid and growth factors

What is the role of macrophages in atresia?

To phagocytose the apoptotic material and debris

What is the role of aromatase in granulosa cells?

Conversion of androstenedione to estrogen

What is the fate of the oocyte if it is not fertilized within 24 hours after ovulation?

It begins to degenerate

What is the characteristic of the oocyte in primordial follicles?

Large nucleus with chromosomes in prophase I

What is the primary function of granulosa lutein cells?

To produce estrogen and progesterone

What is the purpose of the corpus luteum of menstruation?

To produce estrogen and progesterone for 10-12 days

What is the function of the ciliated cells in the epithelium of the ovioduct?

To promote movement of the oocyte into the infundibilum

During pregnancy, what happens to the smooth muscle fibers in the myometrium?

They increase in number and size

What is the innermost layer of the uterine wall?

Endometrium

What is the purpose of the secretions from the peg cells in the ovioduct?

To nourish and protect the oocyte and sperm

What is the primary difference between the basal layer and the functional layer of the endometrium?

Composition of the stroma

What is the primary purpose of the spiral arteries during the proliferative phase?

To increase blood flow to the functional layer

What is the result of increased estrogen levels during the proliferative phase?

Rapid cell proliferation and endometrial growth

What is the primary function of the cervical glands?

To produce mucus that facilitates sperm movement

What is the result of the removal of collagen during cervical effacement?

Softening of the cervix

What is the characteristic of the exocervical mucosa?

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Study Notes

Components of the Female Reproductive System

  • Ovaries: paired organs, two on each side of the uterus, responsible for producing oocytes
  • Fallopian tubes/oviducts: two tubes, each connecting an ovary to the uterus, providing a site for fertilization
  • Uterus: muscle organ located in the pelvic cavity, holds and supports the fetus during development
  • Vagina: muscular canal connecting the cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia
  • External genitalia: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal opening

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

  • Production of female gametes: ovaries produce oocytes
  • Fertilization environment: oviducts transport oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus and provide a site for fertilization
  • Support for embryo: uterus holds and supports the fetus throughout development
  • Hormone production: ovaries produce hormones that control the reproductive system and influence other organs

Ovarian Structure

  • Surface of the ovaries: covered by simple cuboidal epithelium called germinal epithelium
  • Beneath the epithelium: dense layer of connective tissue (CT) called tunica albuginea
  • Cortex: region with stroma of highly cellular CT and many ovarian follicles
  • Medulla: internal part of the ovary, containing loose CT and blood vessels entering the organ from the hilum

Ovarian Follicle Structure

  • An ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells within a basal lamina
  • Basal lamina: a thin layer that separates the follicle from surrounding tissue
  • Primordial follicles: formed during fetal life, consisting of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
  • Oocyte in primordial follicles: has a large nucleus containing chromosomes in the first meiotic prophase, numerous mitochondria, and extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum

Follicular Growth and Development

  • Involves the growth of the oocyte, proliferation and changes in the cells surrounding the oocyte, and proliferation and differentiation of the stroma fibroblasts
  • Selection of primordial follicles that will undergo growth and which follicle will ovulate involves complex hormonal balances and subtle differences among follicles

Atresia

  • Involves programmed cell death
  • During each menstrual cycle, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to grow, while others undergo atresia
  • Stages of atresia: granulosa cells detach, oocyte undergoes self-digestion, zona pellucida collapses, and macrophages invade the degenerating follicle to phagocytose apoptotic material and debris

Ovulation

  • Process where an oocyte is released from the ovary
  • Pre-ovulation: the dominant follicle grows and budges at the outer layer of the ovary, a translucent area called the stigma appears
  • Just before ovulation: the oocyte completes its first meiotic division, which it had started and paused during fetal development
  • At ovulation: the secondary oocyte begins the second division, but stops at metaphase, only completing it if fertilized

Hormonal Regulation

  • Follicular development depends on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, which is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus
  • Estrogen and feedback mechanism: the dominant follicle secretes estrogen, which increases the release of GnRH and leads to a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
  • Inhibin: a hormone produced by granulosa and luteal cells that reinforces the negative feedback of estrogen and progesterone on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

Components of the Female Reproductive System

  • Ovaries: paired organs, two on each side of the uterus, responsible for producing oocytes
  • Fallopian tubes/oviducts: two tubes, each connecting an ovary to the uterus, providing a site for fertilization
  • Uterus: muscle organ located in the pelvic cavity, holds and supports the fetus during development
  • Vagina: muscular canal connecting the cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia
  • External genitalia: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal opening

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

  • Production of female gametes: ovaries produce oocytes
  • Fertilization environment: oviducts transport oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus and provide a site for fertilization
  • Support for embryo: uterus holds and supports the fetus throughout development
  • Hormone production: ovaries produce hormones that control the reproductive system and influence other organs

Ovarian Structure

  • Surface of the ovaries: covered by simple cuboidal epithelium called germinal epithelium
  • Beneath the epithelium: dense layer of connective tissue (CT) called tunica albuginea
  • Cortex: region with stroma of highly cellular CT and many ovarian follicles
  • Medulla: internal part of the ovary, containing loose CT and blood vessels entering the organ from the hilum

Ovarian Follicle Structure

  • An ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells within a basal lamina
  • Basal lamina: a thin layer that separates the follicle from surrounding tissue
  • Primordial follicles: formed during fetal life, consisting of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
  • Oocyte in primordial follicles: has a large nucleus containing chromosomes in the first meiotic prophase, numerous mitochondria, and extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum

Follicular Growth and Development

  • Involves the growth of the oocyte, proliferation and changes in the cells surrounding the oocyte, and proliferation and differentiation of the stroma fibroblasts
  • Selection of primordial follicles that will undergo growth and which follicle will ovulate involves complex hormonal balances and subtle differences among follicles

Atresia

  • Involves programmed cell death
  • During each menstrual cycle, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to grow, while others undergo atresia
  • Stages of atresia: granulosa cells detach, oocyte undergoes self-digestion, zona pellucida collapses, and macrophages invade the degenerating follicle to phagocytose apoptotic material and debris

Ovulation

  • Process where an oocyte is released from the ovary
  • Pre-ovulation: the dominant follicle grows and budges at the outer layer of the ovary, a translucent area called the stigma appears
  • Just before ovulation: the oocyte completes its first meiotic division, which it had started and paused during fetal development
  • At ovulation: the secondary oocyte begins the second division, but stops at metaphase, only completing it if fertilized

Hormonal Regulation

  • Follicular development depends on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, which is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus
  • Estrogen and feedback mechanism: the dominant follicle secretes estrogen, which increases the release of GnRH and leads to a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
  • Inhibin: a hormone produced by granulosa and luteal cells that reinforces the negative feedback of estrogen and progesterone on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

Components of the Female Reproductive System

  • Ovaries: paired organs, two on each side of the uterus, responsible for producing oocytes
  • Fallopian tubes/oviducts: two tubes, each connecting an ovary to the uterus, providing a site for fertilization
  • Uterus: muscle organ located in the pelvic cavity, holds and supports the fetus during development
  • Vagina: muscular canal connecting the cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia
  • External genitalia: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal opening

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

  • Production of female gametes: ovaries produce oocytes
  • Fertilization environment: oviducts transport oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus and provide a site for fertilization
  • Support for embryo: uterus holds and supports the fetus throughout development
  • Hormone production: ovaries produce hormones that control the reproductive system and influence other organs

Ovarian Structure

  • Surface of the ovaries: covered by simple cuboidal epithelium called germinal epithelium
  • Beneath the epithelium: dense layer of connective tissue (CT) called tunica albuginea
  • Cortex: region with stroma of highly cellular CT and many ovarian follicles
  • Medulla: internal part of the ovary, containing loose CT and blood vessels entering the organ from the hilum

Ovarian Follicle Structure

  • An ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells within a basal lamina
  • Basal lamina: a thin layer that separates the follicle from surrounding tissue
  • Primordial follicles: formed during fetal life, consisting of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
  • Oocyte in primordial follicles: has a large nucleus containing chromosomes in the first meiotic prophase, numerous mitochondria, and extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum

Follicular Growth and Development

  • Involves the growth of the oocyte, proliferation and changes in the cells surrounding the oocyte, and proliferation and differentiation of the stroma fibroblasts
  • Selection of primordial follicles that will undergo growth and which follicle will ovulate involves complex hormonal balances and subtle differences among follicles

Atresia

  • Involves programmed cell death
  • During each menstrual cycle, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to grow, while others undergo atresia
  • Stages of atresia: granulosa cells detach, oocyte undergoes self-digestion, zona pellucida collapses, and macrophages invade the degenerating follicle to phagocytose apoptotic material and debris

Ovulation

  • Process where an oocyte is released from the ovary
  • Pre-ovulation: the dominant follicle grows and budges at the outer layer of the ovary, a translucent area called the stigma appears
  • Just before ovulation: the oocyte completes its first meiotic division, which it had started and paused during fetal development
  • At ovulation: the secondary oocyte begins the second division, but stops at metaphase, only completing it if fertilized

Hormonal Regulation

  • Follicular development depends on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, which is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus
  • Estrogen and feedback mechanism: the dominant follicle secretes estrogen, which increases the release of GnRH and leads to a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
  • Inhibin: a hormone produced by granulosa and luteal cells that reinforces the negative feedback of estrogen and progesterone on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

Components of the Female Reproductive System

  • Ovaries: paired organs, two on each side of the uterus, responsible for producing oocytes
  • Fallopian tubes/oviducts: two tubes, each connecting an ovary to the uterus, providing a site for fertilization
  • Uterus: muscle organ located in the pelvic cavity, holds and supports the fetus during development
  • Vagina: muscular canal connecting the cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia
  • External genitalia: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal opening

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

  • Production of female gametes: ovaries produce oocytes
  • Fertilization environment: oviducts transport oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus and provide a site for fertilization
  • Support for embryo: uterus holds and supports the fetus throughout development
  • Hormone production: ovaries produce hormones that control the reproductive system and influence other organs

Ovarian Structure

  • Surface of the ovaries: covered by simple cuboidal epithelium called germinal epithelium
  • Beneath the epithelium: dense layer of connective tissue (CT) called tunica albuginea
  • Cortex: region with stroma of highly cellular CT and many ovarian follicles
  • Medulla: internal part of the ovary, containing loose CT and blood vessels entering the organ from the hilum

Ovarian Follicle Structure

  • An ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells within a basal lamina
  • Basal lamina: a thin layer that separates the follicle from surrounding tissue
  • Primordial follicles: formed during fetal life, consisting of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
  • Oocyte in primordial follicles: has a large nucleus containing chromosomes in the first meiotic prophase, numerous mitochondria, and extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum

Follicular Growth and Development

  • Involves the growth of the oocyte, proliferation and changes in the cells surrounding the oocyte, and proliferation and differentiation of the stroma fibroblasts
  • Selection of primordial follicles that will undergo growth and which follicle will ovulate involves complex hormonal balances and subtle differences among follicles

Atresia

  • Involves programmed cell death
  • During each menstrual cycle, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to grow, while others undergo atresia
  • Stages of atresia: granulosa cells detach, oocyte undergoes self-digestion, zona pellucida collapses, and macrophages invade the degenerating follicle to phagocytose apoptotic material and debris

Ovulation

  • Process where an oocyte is released from the ovary
  • Pre-ovulation: the dominant follicle grows and budges at the outer layer of the ovary, a translucent area called the stigma appears
  • Just before ovulation: the oocyte completes its first meiotic division, which it had started and paused during fetal development
  • At ovulation: the secondary oocyte begins the second division, but stops at metaphase, only completing it if fertilized

Hormonal Regulation

  • Follicular development depends on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, which is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus
  • Estrogen and feedback mechanism: the dominant follicle secretes estrogen, which increases the release of GnRH and leads to a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
  • Inhibin: a hormone produced by granulosa and luteal cells that reinforces the negative feedback of estrogen and progesterone on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

This quiz covers the components and functions of the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia.

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