Evolution and Intra-Species Variation Quiz
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Evolution and Intra-Species Variation Quiz

Test your knowledge on the evolution of natural selection and the concept of intra species variation with this quiz. Learn about ancient thinkers like Aristotle and their observations on how different forms arise in response to functional needs. Explore the fascinating world of tigers and how individuals vary within the Siberian tiger species.

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Questions and Answers

Which ancient Greek philosopher is widely considered to be the 'Father of Botany'?

Theophrastus

What is the meaning of the Greek word 'oikos'?

Home economics

Which of the following is NOT a component of ecology as a discipline?

Chemistry

Which level of organization in ecology focuses on the interactions between multiple species in a specific area?

<p>Community</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which scientific vocabulary term refers to a proposition that suggests an explanation for an observable situation or phenomenon?

<p>Hypothesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which ecological approach focuses on the historical bases for observations?

<p>Evolutionary</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which scientific vocabulary term refers to a set of hypotheses that when taken together explain a series of empirical observations?

<p>Theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the 'Father of Evolution'?

<p>Charles Darwin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the three criteria for natural selection?

<p>Natural selection acts on populations as a whole</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who believed that changes in structure caused by use were inherited?

<p>Jean Baptiste Lamarck</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which ancient thinker interjected the concept of heredity into his observations?

<p>Aristotle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who first coined the term 'oekologie' to describe the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment?

<p>Ernst Haeckel</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Ernst Haeckel suggest were the three kingdoms in his study of animals and their environment?

<p>Animals, plants, and protists</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who correlated plant morphology with geography and described vegetative zones by latitude and altitude?

<p>Alexander von Humboldt</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who first coined the term 'ecosystem' to describe the combined physical and biological components of the environment?

<p>Roy Clapham</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes Charles Darwin's career path after graduating from Cambridge?

<p>He became a naturalist on the HMS Beagle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Charles Darwin observe during his visit to the Galapagos Islands?

<p>Variance among the species</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Charles Darwin procrastinate on before formulating his theory of evolution by natural selection?

<p>Formulating his theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Thomas Malthus' model of population survival lead Charles Darwin to hypothesize?

<p>The adaptation of species</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, what is the purpose of the null hypothesis in hypothesis testing?

<p>To provide a default position that there is no association among groups or variables</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does a 95% confidence interval tell us?

<p>It defines a range of values that you can be 95% certain contains the population mean</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of replication in experimental design?

<p>To run exact copies of the experiment concurrently</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of multicellular autotrophic plants?

<p>They have cells with plasma membrane and cellulose cell walls</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is credited with introducing the concept of succession in plant ecology?

<p>Johannes E. Warming</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is responsible for coining the phrase 'association' in relation to plant biology?

<p>Anton Kerner</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who introduced the concepts of shade tolerance, competition, and succession in plant biology?

<p>Jozef Paczoski</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who wrote the influential book 'The Lake as a Microcosm' and studied food chains in lakes?

<p>Stephen A. Forbes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which Greek word is the root of the term 'ecology'?

<p>oikos</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the 'Father of Botany'?

<p>Theophrastus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the study of 'the economy of nature' called?

<p>Oekologie</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the text, which level of organization in ecology focuses on understanding the factors influencing nutrient cycling and energy flow?

<p>Ecosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the scientific method?

<p>To answer questions about the natural world</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which scientific vocabulary term refers to a verbal or mathematical statement of an hypothesis?

<p>Model</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main focus of descriptive ecological studies?

<p>Natural history observations</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who first coined the term 'ecosystem' to describe the combined physical and biological components of the environment?

<p>Arthur Tansley</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Ernst Haeckel suggest were the three kingdoms in his study of animals and their environment?

<p>Animals, plants, and protists</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who correlated plant morphology with geography and described vegetative zones by latitude and altitude?

<p>Alexander von Humboldt</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the 'Father of Evolution'?

<p>Charles Darwin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three criteria for natural selection?

<p>Differential survival, heritable differences, random variation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which ancient thinker interjected the concept of heredity into his observations?

<p>Aristotle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Jean Baptiste Lamarck believe about the inheritance of acquired characteristics?

<p>Changes in structure caused by use were inherited</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps of the scientific method?

<p>Analysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the 95% confidence interval in hypothesis testing?

<p>To define a range of values containing the population mean with 95% certainty</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of multicellular autotrophic plants?

<p>Chlorophylls A and B</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the types of experiments mentioned in the text?

<p>Controlled</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes Charles Darwin's career path after graduating from Cambridge?

<p>He became a naturalist on HMS Beagle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Charles Darwin notice during his visit to the Galapagos Islands?

<p>Variance among the species</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Thomas Malthus' model of population survival lead Charles Darwin to hypothesize?

<p>The concept of natural selection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Charles Darwin hypothesize about the species on the Galapagos Islands?

<p>They adapted to the local conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is credited with introducing the concept of plant associations in ecology?

<p>Johannes E. Warming</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the 'Father of Plant Sociology'?

<p>Jozef Paczoski</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who wrote the influential book 'Plantesamfund' and synthesized plant morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and biogeography?

<p>Johannes E. Warming</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is responsible for coining the phrase 'association' in relation to plant biology?

<p>Johannes E. Warming</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

A History of Ecology

  • Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle, wrote about the interrelationships between plants and the environment, making him the "Father of Botany".
  • The term "ecology" comes from the Greek word "oikos", meaning "of the family or household", and can be thought of as the study of the economy of nature.
  • Ellen Swallow Richards coined the term "oekology" which later became home economics.
  • Ecology encompasses various biological disciplines including behavior, physiology, and molecular biology.
  • Alexander von Humboldt correlated plant morphology with geography and described vegetative zones by latitude and altitude.
  • Johannes Warming established plant ecology as a division of botany and studied the interactions of plants with their environments.
  • The term "ecosystem" was coined by Roy Clapham and defined as the combined physical and biological components of the environment.
  • The term "biosphere" was proposed by Eduard Suess and refers to the conditions promoting life on Earth.
  • The field of ecology started with European plant geographers who noticed similarities and differences in plant characteristics from different parts of the world and habitats.
  • Influential figures in the development of ecology include Karl Willdenow, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt, and Anton Kerner.
  • Arthur Tansley and George Evelyn Hutchinson had a significant impact on the development of modern ecology.
  • Eugene Odum expanded upon Tansley's ecosystem concept and introduced the ideas of nutrient cycling, trophic levels, and energy flow in food webs.

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