Chapter 6 - Prehistoric Europe North of Mediterranean

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30 Questions

What is the main reason why most adults are not able to digest the milk sugar lactose without digestive issues?

Genetic predisposition

Which Neolithic farming group spread into central and northwestern Europe along the Danube River?

Linear Pottery Culture

What type of earthen tomb built in Neolithic Europe has a wooden or stone interior corridor?

Long barrow

What kind of stone structure is a menhir?

Single standing stone

What do some archaeologists believe the Oppida settlements of the Late Iron Age La Tène Culture to be?

Urban centers

Where is the Passo di Corvo site located?

Eastern Coast of Italy

Which culture in Europe used pottery with a globular body and an out-turned flaring rim during the Late Neolithic period?

Funnel Beaker Culture

When did the Duvensee sites showing targeted harvesting of hazelnuts in northern Germany date back to?

Between 8900 and 6500 cal BC

Which culture is associated with human skulls placed at intervals in one of the ditches at Hambledon Hill in England?

Hallstatt Culture

During which period in Europe was iron widely used in implements?

Iron Age

Where was Heuneburg, a Hallstatt Culture proto-urban center with evidence of Mediterranean trade, located?

Southern Germany

Which culture in Europe was conquered by the Romans during the later part of the Iron Age?

La Tène Culture

What is the main reason for the disappearance of the Ertebølle culture around 4000 cal BC?

Assimilation of hunter-gatherer-foragers into farming populations

What can be inferred about burials during the Ertebølle period from the text?

They exhibited hierarchy and gender distinctions

Which of the following were domesticates originating in the Middle East according to the text?

Wheat and barley

Where did the spread of domestic plants and animals into Europe originate from based on genetic evidence?

Middle East

What can be concluded about the migration of farmers into Europe according to the text?

It occurred due to increased fertility rates among farmers

Which geographical routes did farmers take to migrate into Europe according to the text?

Southeast to west along the Mediterranean coast, southeast toward northwest along Danube Route

What is one possible explanation for the violence mentioned in the text?

Large populations combined with drought and resource shortages

Which culture supplanted the Linear Pottery Culture in some parts of Europe?

Funnel Beaker Culture

What type of pottery is associated with the Funnel Beaker Culture?

Pottery with a globular body and an out-turned flaring rim

What agricultural products were included in the Funnel Beaker Culture?

Cereals, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats

What led to natural selection for a lactose tolerance gene during the Funnel Beaker Culture period?

Dairy consumption over many generations

What is a famous arrangement of menhirs mentioned in the text?

Carnac: a series of 3,000 menhirs arranged as alignments in France

What type of grave goods are typically found in male Bronze Age burials?

Swords and armor

What do archaeologists interpret the richness of some female Bronze Age graves to signify?

Female status

What was a common feature in Middle and Late Bronze Age sites that reflected an increased focus on defense?

Fortifications

How is wealth inequality in the Bronze Age often indicated according to the text?

Grave goods

What evidence suggests that violence was prevalent during the Bronze Age?

Weapons and rock art depictions

In what type of settlements were groups of warriors associated with a leader during the Middle to Late Bronze Age?

Fortified settlements

Study Notes

Mesolithic Sites

  • Duvensee: a peat bog region in northern Germany with a series of Mesolithic sites showing targeted harvesting and processing of hazelnuts, dating between 8900 and 6500 cal BC.
  • Ertebølle Culture: a late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-forager group in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany (Europe), living between 5500 and 4000 cal BC, and showing hierarchy and gender distinctions in burials.

Neolithic Period

  • Linear Pottery Culture: Early Neolithic farming groups in central and northwestern Europe, spreading from the Balkan Peninsula area along the Danube River and its tributaries, dating between 5700 and 4500 cal BC.
  • Funnel Beaker Culture: Late Neolithic groups in central and northern Europe, making pottery with a globular body and an out-turned flaring rim, and dating between 4500 and 2800 cal BC.
  • These groups introduced the plow from the Middle East and developed cattle-drawn wheeled vehicles.
  • Dairy consumption led to natural selection for a lactose tolerance gene.

Megalith Construction

  • Neolithic societies in Europe began creating various megalithic monuments around 5000 cal BC.
  • Menhirs: single standing megalithic stones, sometimes occurring alone, and other times in groups such as avenues or henges.
  • Long barrow: a communal earthen mound tomb built in Neolithic Europe, with a wooden or stone interior corridor into which the dead were placed over an extended period of time.
  • Passage grave: a communal earthen mound tomb built in Neolithic Europe, with a stone passage and one or more burial chambers at the end of the passage.

Iron Age

  • Iron Age: a period in Europe from about 800 to 59/51 cal BC, characterized by the manufacture and use of implements made of iron.
  • Hallstatt Culture: the early part of the Iron Age in Europe, from about 750 to 450 cal BC, found north of the Alps in central Europe and extending in an arc to the east and west of Italy.
  • Heuneburg: a Hallstatt Culture proto-urban center in southern Germany, with evidence of trade with the Mediterranean and lavish burials of elites.
  • La Tène Culture: the later part of the Iron Age in Europe, from approximately 450 to 59/51 cal BC, when much of Europe was conquered by the Romans.

Settlements and Burials

  • Oppida: large, often fortified settlements of the Late Iron Age La Tène Culture, sometimes described as urban centers.
  • Hambledon Hill: a Neolithic causewayed enclosure in England, with human skulls placed at intervals in one of the ditches.
  • Vedbæk and Skateholm: Ertebølle Culture sites in Denmark and Sweden, respectively, showing gender distinctions in burials, dog burials, diverse grave goods, and evidence of ritual.

Food Production and Migration

  • Early Food Production Domesticates in Europe originated in the Middle East and include wheat and barley, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs.
  • The spread of domestic plants and animals parallels the spread of Middle Eastern groups from Turkey, Greece, and the Balkan Peninsula into Europe, based on genetic evidence.
  • The migration of farmers may have been due to farmers' increased fertility rates combined with a need for new land.

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