Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Quiz
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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Quiz

Test your knowledge on the central process for resolving psychosocial crises at each stage according to Erik Erikson's theory. Explore the developmental tasks, age-graded expectations, and sensitive periods associated with each stage from infancy to old age.

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@ManeuverableBugle

Questions and Answers

According to psychoanalytic theory, healthy personality development in children is determined by:

How children resolve conflicts between drives

Fixation in psychoanalytic theory occurs when:

A child's sexual desires are either overly satisfied or undersatisfied

Which psychosexual stage is associated with gratification from expelling or withholding feces?

Anal stage

During which psychosexual stage does sexual curiosity and masturbation occur?

<p>Phallic stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which adult trait is associated with fixation at the Anal stage according to psychoanalytic theory?

<p>Excessive cleanliness</p> Signup and view all the answers

In psychoanalytic theory, the Oedipus complex and Electra complex are concepts related to which psychosexual stage?

<p>Phallic stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of learning theory is associated with B.F. Skinner?

<p>Operant conditioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

In operant conditioning, what is provided to increase a behavior?

<p>Positive reinforcement</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of reinforcement leads to an increase in the likelihood of a behavior by removing a negative stimulus?

<p>Negative reinforcement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of schedule of reinforcement rewards a factory worker's salary after a fixed number of responses?

<p>Fixed ratio schedule</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which schedule of reinforcement provides a reward after an unpredictably varying amount of time?

<p>Variable interval schedule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of negative punishment?

<p>Losing the privilege to hang out with friends</p> Signup and view all the answers

In Piaget's cognitive development theory, what is the process that involves using existing knowledge to understand new experiences?

<p>Assimilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which stage of Piaget's stage theory of development is characterized by a lack of object permanence?

<p>Sensorimotor stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key difference between assimilation and accommodation in Piaget's theory?

<p>Assimilation incorporates new information, while accommodation preserves existing knowledge.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which concept is essential for all organisms' survival according to Piaget's cognitive development theory?

<p>Adaptation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory in cognitive development?

<p>Focuses on the impact of culture and social interactions on learning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes Piaget's cognitive development theory from Vygotsky's sociocultural theory?

<p>Piaget focuses on innate biological factors, while Vygotsky emphasizes social and cultural influences.</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory, the interactions between a child's home, day care, church, and grandparents' home are part of which system?

<p>Mesosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which system in Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory involves settings that do not directly involve the individual but still affect them?

<p>Exosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the psychosocial theory, the emphasis is on the interplay among which systems?

<p>Biological, psychological, and societal systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which system in Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory involves the culture or society within which an individual resides?

<p>Macrosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of events and transitions does the chronosystem in Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory encompass?

<p>Environmental events and transitions over one's life</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to systems theories like the Ecological Systems theory, why is it insufficient to just identify each component of a system?

<p>It hinders the understanding of the entire system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the central process for resolving psychosocial crises at each stage according to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development?

<p>Imitating cultural expectations</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Havighurst's concept of developmental tasks, what are developmental tasks?

<p>Tasks that change with age-graded expectations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are sensitive periods in human development?

<p>Periods when individuals are most ready to acquire new abilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Erikson define psychosocial crises?

<p>Tensions resulting from discrepancies between competences and societal expectations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do psychosocial crises provide opportunities for, according to Erikson's theory?

<p>Producing new social capabilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does resolving psychosocial crises lead to changes in self-concept according to the text?

<p>By taking in cultural expectations and changing self-concept</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Children develop through a series of stages, confronting conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.
  • Healthy personality development is determined by how parents manage a child's early sexual and aggressive drives.
  • Fixation occurs when a child's sexual desires are either overly satisfied or undersatisfied.
  • There are 7 psychosexual stages, each with a specific focus:
    • Oral (birth to 1): Mouth, weaning, and oral gratification.
    • Anal (1 to 3): Anus, toilet training, and gratification from expelling or withholding feces.
    • Phallic (3 to 6): Genitals, Oedipus complex, and Electra complex.
    • Latency (6 to puberty): Period of sexual calmness, interest in school, and hobbies.
    • Genital (Puberty onwards): Re-awakening of sexual drives, building intimate relationships.

Psychosocial Development

  • Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development:
    • 0-18 months old: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 18 months – 3 years old: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • 3 – 5 years old: Initiative vs. Guilt
    • 5 – 13 years old: Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 13-21 years old: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • 21-39 years old: Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 40-65 years old: Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • 65 years older: Integrity vs. Despair
  • Havighurst's concept of developmental tasks: process by which humans learn tasks required by society.
  • Age-graded expectations: tasks change with age.
  • Sensitive periods: periods of development when an individual is most ready to acquire a new ability.

Learning Theories

  • Operant/Instrumental Conditioning (B.F. Skinner):
    • Processes: reinforcement, punishment, and schedule of reinforcement.
    • Positive Reinforcement: increase behavior, e.g., bonus for working hard.
    • Negative Reinforcement: decrease behavior, e.g., aspirin relieving headache.
    • Positive Punishment: increase behavior, e.g., getting a speeding ticket.
    • Negative Punishment: decrease behavior, e.g., losing the privilege to hang out late.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement:
    • Fixed Ratio (FR): reward after a fixed number of responses.
    • Variable Ratio (VR): reward after an unpredictably varying number of responses.
    • Fixed Interval (FI): reward after a fixed amount of time.
    • Variable Interval (VI): reward after an unpredictably varying amount of time.

Cognitive Development

  • Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory:
    • Assimilation: using existing schemes to interpret new experiences.
    • Accommodation: modifying familiar schemes to interpret new experiences.
    • Stages of Development:
      • Sensorimotor (0-18 months): lack of object permanence.

Systems Theory

  • Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory:
    • Microsystem: immediate context/setting.
    • Mesosystem: interactions between two microsystems.
    • Exosystem: settings that do not involve the person directly but affect the person.
    • Macrosystem: culture or society.
    • Chronosystem: environmental events and transitions over one's life.

Psychosocial Theory

  • Emphasis on the interplay among biological, psychological, and societal systems.
  • Stages of development:
    • Developmental tasks.
    • Psychosocial crisis.
    • Resolving psychosocial crises: central process to resolve the crises.

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