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Epilepsy Drug Dosage and Treatment

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28 Questions

What is the maximum dose of diazepam that can be administered per minute?

5 mg/min

Why should benzodiazepines not be mixed with other medications in the same syringe?

To prevent precipitate formation

What is the primary purpose of ECG monitoring during benzodiazepine administration?

To monitor heart rate and detect bradycardia

What is the recommended dosage of diazepam for status epilepticus?

Red at 10- to 15 mg intervals

What is the primary mechanism of benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms?

Rebound anxiety

What is the most common neurologic adverse effect of benzodiazepines?

Drowsiness

What is the primary mechanism of action of benzodiazepines in preventing seizure activity?

Enhancing the effects of GABA in the postsynaptic clefts

Which of the following benzodiazepines is approved for oral treatment of absence, akinetic, and myoclonic seizures in children?

Clonazepam

What is the administration route for diazepam and lorazepam in treating status epilepticus?

Intravenous

What is the primary use of clorazepate in treating seizures?

As an adjunctive therapy for partial seizures

What is the name of the nasal spray formulation of diazepam used to treat seizure clusters?

Valtoco

What is the effect of increased levels of GABA on the chloride channel?

Opening the chloride channel

What is the primary site of action of the hydantoins?

Motor cortex

What is the result of the hydantoins blocking voltage-gated sodium channels?

Reduced sustained neuronal discharges

What is the recommended rate of administration of diazepam?

5 mg/min

Why is fosphenytoin particularly useful in certain situations?

It can be loaded quickly, making it useful when rapid administration is necessary

Why is it recommended to administer phenytoin through a large vein or as an IV piggyback?

To prevent irritation to small veins

What is a potential side effect of phenytoin in toxic concentrations?

Seizure induction

What is the purpose of using an ECG monitor during the administration of diazepam or lorazepam?

To monitor for bradycardia

What is a potential adverse effect of benzodiazepines that patients should be cautioned about?

Blurred vision

What is the main use of the hydantoins in terms of seizure treatment?

Treating generalized tonic-clonic seizures

Which of the following medications can increase the toxic effects of diazepam?

Analgesics

What is a potential consequence of cigarette smoking on benzodiazepine use?

Increased metabolism of benzodiazepines

What is the primary distinction between seizure clusters and status epilepticus?

The duration of seizure activity

What is the primary goal of performing a baseline assessment of a patient's speech patterns, degree of alertness, and orientation?

To monitor the patient's behavioral responses to therapy

Which of the following is a therapeutic outcome expected from benzodiazepine therapy?

Reduced injury from seizure activity

What is the purpose of reviewing the patient's medical record in the premedication assessment?

To document the frequency of seizure activity

What is the primary reason for performing a review of routine blood studies in the premedication assessment?

To detect blood dyscrasias and hepatotoxicity

This quiz covers the dosage ranges and treatment options for various types of seizures, including partial, absence, and myoclonic seizures, in adolescents and adults. It also discusses the use of different drugs in conjunction with other agents. Test your knowledge of epilepsy treatment and management!

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