English Consonants: Stops, Fricatives, Affricates

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22 Questions

Which of the following consonants is a voiced bilabial stop?

/m/

What is the place of articulation for the consonant /ʧ/ in the International Phonetic Alphabet?

Palatal

Which of these consonants is a voiceless alveolar fricative?

/s/

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, what is the place of articulation for the consonant /ŋ/?

Velar

Which of the following consonants is a voiced dental fricative?

/θ/

Identify the consonant that is a voiceless velar plosive in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

/g/

Which type of sounds have a relatively open vocal tract?

Vowels

What is the highest point of the tongue in Front English Vowels?

Front of the mouth

Which type of English Vowels has a wide passage for air to flow through?

Low English Vowels

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, which symbol represents the sound in 'meat'?

/i/

Which group of vowels has the highest point of the tongue in the back of the mouth?

Back English Vowels

What distinguishes Round English Vowels from Unrounded English Vowels?

Lip rounding

Which part of the vocal tract is responsible for modulating the air and changing the noise during speech production?

Articulators

Which type of sounds are produced with the vocal cords held apart?

Voiceless sounds

Which group of English consonants are made by touching the upper and lower lips together?

Bilabial consonants

What is described according to their rounding, height, and backness in the International Phonetic Alphabet?

Vowels

Which part of the vocal tract contains the vocal folds that vibrate to produce voiced sounds?

Larynx

What kind of sounds are produced with one or more constrictions in the vocal tract?

Consonants

/p/ and /b/ are examples of which type of consonant distinction based on voicing?

/p/ and /t/ distinction

'Church' is an example of which type of English sound?

/ʧ/

'Lake' and 'wine' differ primarily in their:

Place of articulation

'Mow' and 'no' differ mainly in their:

Manner of articulation

Study Notes

Consonants

  • Consonants are sounds produced with one or more constrictions in the vocal tract.
  • Described according to their voicing, manner, and place of articulation.

Manner of Articulation

  • Stops (Plosives): airflow is completely obstructed. /b/ ‘bile’ /p/ ‘pile’ /d/ ‘den’ /t/ ‘ten’ /g/ ‘gum’ /k/ ‘come’
  • Fricatives: tight constriction of the articulators makes the air flow turbulently. /z/ ‘zee’ /ð/ ‘thy’ /s/ ‘see’ /θ/ ‘thigh’ /ʒ/ ‘usual’ /v/ ‘vine’ /ʃ/ ‘she’ /f/ ‘fine’ /h/ ‘have’
  • Affricates: a stop followed by a fricative, made in rapid succession. /ʤ/ ‘judge’ /ʧ/ ‘church’
  • Nasals (Nasal Stops): the velum is lowered, allowing air to escape through the nose. /m/ ‘mow’ /n/ ‘know’ /ŋ/ ‘sing’
  • Approximants: have very wide constriction and no closure. /l/ ‘lake’ /ɹ/ ‘rake’ /j/ ‘yes’ /w/ ‘wine’

Three-Part Articulatory Description

  • Consonants are described according to their voicing, manner, and place of articulation.
  • Examples: /p/ is a voiceless bilabial stop. /b/ is a voiced bilabial stop. /g/ is a voiced velar stop. /t/ is a voiceless alveolar stop. /ɹ/ is a voiced alveolar approximant. /ŋ/ is a voiced velar nasal. /j/ is a voiced palatal approximant. /s/ is a voiceless alveolar fricative. /θ/ is a voiceless interdental fricative. /l/ is a voiced alveolar lateral approximant. /k/ is a voiceless velar stop. /ʧ/ is a voiceless postalveolar affricate. /m/ is a voiced bilabial nasal. /z/ is a voiced alveolar fricative. /n/ is a voiced alveolar nasal. /ð/ is a voiced interdental fricative. /w/ is a voiced labiovelar approximant. /ʒ/ is a voiced postalveolar fricative. /f/ is a voiceless labiodental fricative.

International Phonetic Alphabet

  • Divided into consonant chart and vowel chart.
  • Consonants are described according to their voicing, manner, and place of articulation.
  • Vowels are described according to their rounding, height, and backness.

Vowels

  • Highly sonorous (loud) sounds with a relatively open vocal tract.
  • Described according to their rounding, height, and backness.
  • Examples: /i/ ‘meat’ /ɪ/ ‘mit’ /eɪ/ ‘mate’ /ɛ/ ‘met’ /æ/ ‘mat’ /u/ ‘shoe’ /ʌ/ ‘above’ /ʊ/ ‘should’ /ə/ ‘above’ /oʊ/ ‘show’ /ɔ/ ‘shawl’ /ɑ/ ‘shot’

Place of Articulation

  • Articulators: parts of the vocal tract that are used to form sounds.
  • Lower, mobile articulators move against upper, mostly immobile articulators.
  • Examples: /p/ and /b/ are bilabial consonants. /m/ and /w/ are bilabial consonants.

Voicing

  • Larynx: complex structure of cartilage and muscle that includes the vocal folds (also called cords).
  • Vocal folds/cords can be lined up so that air from the lungs will make them vibrate.
  • Voiced sounds: produced with the vocal cords vibrating.
  • Voiceless sounds: produced with the vocal cords held apart.
  • Examples: /b/ is a voiced bilabial stop. /p/ is a voiceless bilabial stop. /z/ is a voiced alveolar fricative. /s/ is a voiceless alveolar fricative.

Test your knowledge of English consonants by identifying the manner of articulation for stops, fricatives, and affricates. Practice recognizing sounds like /b/, /p/, /z/, /s/, /ʒ/, and more.

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