Endocrine System: Neurohormonal Control of Reproductive Hormones

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What is the primary function of the Fallopian tubes in the female reproductive system?

To transport eggs from the ovaries to the uterus

Which hormone is primarily responsible for maintaining pregnancy in the female reproductive system?

Progesterone

What is the name of the axis that regulates the reproductive system in both males and females?

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

What is the main source of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?

Placental chorion

What is the primary function of the cervix in the female reproductive system?

To dilate for birthing

Which of the following is NOT a steroid hormone involved in the reproductive system?

Chorionic gonadotropin

What is the primary purpose of GnRH agonist in IVF treatment?

To shut off gonadotropin secretion

What is the typical duration of FSH injection in IVF treatment?

10 days

What is the primary cause of osteoporosis in menopausal women?

↓ circulating oestrogen

What is the benefit of tibolone tablets in HRT?

Can be used continuously without cyclical progesterone

What is the adverse effect of unopposed oestrogen in HRT?

↑ Risk of endometrial cancer

Why does progesterone reduce the risk of cancer in HRT?

It counteracts the oestrogenic effect on the endometrium

What is the primary function of DHT in target cells?

Inducing gene expression to stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis

Which of the following is NOT a metabolic effect of androgens?

Stimulating spermatogenesis

What is the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to DHT in peripheral tissues?

5α-reductase

What is the main source of circulating testosterone?

Gonads (ovaries, testes, adrenal cortex)

What is the effect of high levels of testosterone on libido?

Stimulates libido

What is the ultimate effect of androgens on epiphyseal plates?

Fusion of epiphyseal plates

What is the effect of very obese men converting their testosterone to oestrogen?

Feminizing effects

What is the role of Inhibin in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Testicular axis?

Inhibits FSH release

What is the cause of 3° hypogonadism?

Hypothalamic failure to secrete GnRH

What is the typical karyotype of Klinefelter's syndrome?

XXY

What is the effect of androgen insensitivity or resistance?

Partial or complete inability of cells to respond to androgens

What is the approximate frequency of androgen insensitivity or resistance in XY births?

1 in 20,000 to 64,000

What is the primary reason for abusing tetrahydrogestrinone, stanozolol, and nandrolone?

To improve muscle mass and endurance

What is the mechanism of action of Abiraterone acetate?

Inhibiting the biosynthesis of androgens

Which of the following is a side effect of using Finasteride?

Hair re-growth

What is the difference between Finasteride and Dutasteride?

Finasteride is a type II inhibitor, while Dutasteride is a type I and II inhibitor

What is the effect of 5α-reductase inhibitors on hair follicles?

Decrease the proportion of DHT

What is the primary use of Anastrozole?

Treating breast cancer in postmenopausal women

This quiz covers the neurohormonal control of ovarian and testicular hormones, including oestrogens and androgens, and their therapeutic uses. It is part of the Endocrine L4 course, focusing on the reproductive system. Review the structure and function of hormones in the body.

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