Chapter 20 |Adrenal Gland

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Which zone of the adrenal cortex is responsible for aldosterone biosynthesis?

Zona Glomerulosa

What type of hormones are synthesized by the adrenal medulla?

Catecholamines

What is the half-life of catecholamines in the circulation?

2 minutes

What are the metabolic effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine?

Mobilization of free fatty acids

What is the precursor of all steroids?

Cholesterol

Where is cholesterol transported for conversion to pregnenolone?

Mitochondria

What is the name of the α globulin that binds cortisol in the circulation?

Transcortin

Which hormone activates adenylyl cyclase via Gs receptors in adrenocortical cells?

ACTH

Which hormones of the adrenal cortex are derivatives of cholesterol?

Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone

During sleep, which catecholamines are reduced in secretion?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

What is the 'emergency function of the sympathoadrenal system' according to Cannon?

Increased adrenal medullary secretion

Which steroids are normally secreted in physiologically significant amounts from adrenal tissue?

Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone

What are the two classes of receptors that norepinephrine and epinephrine act on?

α- and β-adrenergic receptors

Which hormone is an important source of estrogens in men and postmenopausal women?

Androstenedione

What stimulates glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex?

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Which hormone increases the excretion of Na+ and K+?

Aldosterone

Which adrenal cortical zone is responsible for aldosterone biosynthesis?

Zona glomerulosa

What is the primary function of the adrenal medulla?

Synthesis of catecholamines

Which hormones are conjugated to sulfate in plasma?

Norepinephrine

What are the metabolic effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine?

Mobilization of free fatty acids

Which hormones of the adrenal cortex are involved in glucose and protein metabolism?

Cortisol and corticosterone

What is the precursor of estrogens in men and postmenopausal women?

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Which hormone increases the excretion of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)?

Aldosterone

What stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex?

Stress

What is the effect of glucocorticoids on ACTH secretion?

Inhibit ACTH secretion

In patients with adrenal insufficiency who have not received glucocorticoids, what reaction may glucose infusion cause?

High fever ('glucose fever') followed by collapse and death

What personality changes are associated with adrenal insufficiency that are reversed by glucocorticoids?

Irritability, apprehension, and inability to concentrate

How do glucocorticoids affect water metabolism in adrenal insufficiency?

Cause water intoxication

What is the primary action of mineralocorticoids like aldosterone on Na+ reabsorption?

Increase Na+ reabsorption from urine and other bodily fluids

What happens when aldosterone binds to its cytoplasmic receptor in the cell?

It increases the synthesis of ENaCs

How do mineralocorticoids affect potassium (K+) excretion in the renal tubules?

Produce a K+ diuresis

What is the mechanism through which aldosterone-stimulated proteins affect sodium reabsorption?

Enhance the synthesis of ENaCs

Which type of adrenergic receptors mediate the vasoconstriction produced by norepinephrine?

α1-receptors

What is the effect of dopamine on renal vasculature?

Vasodilation

Which adrenergic receptor mediates the positive inotropic effect of dopamine on the heart?

β1-receptors

What is the physiological function of dopamine in the circulation?

Unknown

During emergency situations, which part of the adrenal gland secretes increased amounts of hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine?

Adrenal Medulla

Which hormone is NOT normally secreted in physiologically significant amounts from adrenal tissue?

Aldosterone

Which nucleus is found in the structure of hormones derived from the adrenal cortex?

Cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene Nucleus

What is the primary function of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone?

Regulating Sodium and Potassium Levels

Which hormone is the most active androgen secreted from the testes?

Testosterone

What controls the acute secretion of adrenal androgens?

ACTH

What happens when adrenal androgens are secreted in excessive amounts in males?

They cause masculinization effects

How do glucocorticoids affect glucose metabolism?

Increase hepatic glycogenesis

What effect does free glucocorticoids have on ACTH secretion?

Inhibits ACTH secretion

Why can administering steroids not produce the effects of high levels of circulating glucocorticoids?

Steroids result in other manifestations of glucocorticoid excess

Which hormone is responsible for increasing the sensitivity of the adrenal to subsequent doses of ACTH?

ACTH

When does most of the daily production of cortisol occur in humans?

Between 4:00 AM and 10:00 AM

Explore the role of deoxycorticosterone in the endocrine system, its comparison with aldosterone, and the process of steroid biosynthesis starting from cholesterol. Test your knowledge on the synthesis of steroids from cholesterol precursors.

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