Endocrine System Glands and Hormones Quiz

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30 Questions

What is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism?

Decreased thyroid secretion due to autoimmune phenomenon

Which symptom is common in children with congenital goiter?

Delayed sexual development

What is the purpose of using Propranolol in the treatment of hyperthyroidism?

To manage nervousness and loss of muscle strength

Which medication is classified as an antithyroid drug?

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

What is a characteristic feature of acute adrenal insufficiency?

Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia

When is radioiodine ablative therapy typically considered for hyperthyroidism?

In chronic cases that are unresponsive to medications

What is the most likely outcome of overproduction of growth hormone before the epiphyseal lines of the long bones have closed?

Acromegaly

Which condition is characterized by a high pitch voice, mal-aligned teeth, and delayed development of secondary sex characteristics?

Underproduction of growth hormone

What is the main treatment for diabetes insipidus?

Desmopressin

What characteristic distinguishes acromegaly from gigantism?

Enlargement of hands and feet

Which gland regulates the body's overall metabolic rate and controls calcium levels in the bloodstream?

Thyroid Gland

What hormone does the Pancreas gland primarily control in the blood?

Insulin

Which symptom is associated with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)?

Mild Hyponatremia

How does Desmopressin help treat diabetes insipidus?

Replaces antidiuretic hormone

Which gland is responsible for regulating sugar levels in the blood?

Thymus Gland

Which of the following glands is controlled by the Hypothalamus and plays a role in the body's water levels?

Adrenal Glands

What hormone does the Pituitary Gland produce to regulate growth rate, reproduction, and metabolism?

Somatotropin (Growth Hormone)

Which pair of hormones are primarily produced by the Thyroid Gland?

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

What is the enzyme responsible for converting phenylalanine to tyrosine?

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)

At what rate does the defective gene for Phenylketonuria (PKU) occur in the population?

1 in 10,000 to 1 in 15,000

Which population is less commonly affected by Phenylketonuria (PKU) according to the text?

Asians

What is the range of normal phenylalanine levels in the blood as mentioned in the text?

400 – 800 umol/L

What type of diet can prevent mental retardation in individuals with Phenylketonuria (PKU)?

Low Phenylalanine, High Tyrosine

What is the first FDA-approved drug for treating Phenylketonuria (PKU) mentioned in the text?

Kuvan

Which enzyme deficiency is responsible for the most common type of adrenocortical insufficiency mentioned in the text?

Shortage of 21-hydroxylase

What is a characteristic symptom of Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

Hyponatremia

Which CAH subtype is characterized by moderate aldosterone deficiency and excessive androgen production?

Simple-Virilizing CAH

What is a potential long-term consequence of Simple-Virilizing Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia?

Abnormal menstrual periods

In individuals with Ambiguous Genitalia due to CAH, what is a common treatment approach mentioned in the text?

Surgery

What is a critical sign of shock discussed in the context of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

Hypotension

Test your knowledge on the glands and hormones of the endocrine system, including the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid, pancreas, thymus, and reproductive glands. Identify key hormones such as ADH, ACTH, TSH, Thyroxine, Cortisol, and Insulin.

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