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Emollients and Fatty Acids Quiz

Test your knowledge on emollients, fatty acids, and their sources. Learn about vegetable-based, animal-based, and petroleum-based materials used in the production of emollients. Understand the importance of using saturated fatty acids in cosmetics.

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Questions and Answers

Which type of surfactant is used for conditioning skin and hair?

Cationic

What is the main function of emollients in cosmetics?

To add moisture and soften the skin

Which type of emulsifier stabilizes emulsions without associating into charged species?

Non-ionic emulsifiers

In cosmetics, which ingredient is prized for its ability to replenish lipids naturally found in the skin layers?

<p>Essential fatty acids</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main role of anionic surfactants in cosmetics?

<p>Foam building and cleaning</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do cationic surfactants work on the skin surface?

<p>They attract to the negatively charged skin surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the definition of cosmetics according to the ASEAN Consumer Information Handbook on Cosmetic Product?

<p>Preparations intended to be placed in contact with external parts of the human body for various purposes.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the field of Cosmetic Science encompass?

<p>Concepts and principles from a wide range of science fields.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the ASEAN Consumer Information Handbook define Cosmeceuticals?

<p>Cosmetic products with medicinal properties.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT listed as part of the formulation of cosmetics?

<p>Antibiotics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of cosmetic products?

<p>To clean and protect external parts of the human body</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context provided, what differentiates cosmetics from drug products?

<p>Cosmetics focus on external body parts, while drug products focus on internal medical treatment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the water immersion time after which a sunscreen retains its SPF level?

<p>40 minutes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vitamin is known for its skin-lightening effects?

<p>Vitamin C</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vitamin stimulates cell proliferation and cell renewal?

<p>Vitamin A</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of Biotin on nails and hair?

<p>Enhanced keratinization</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vitamin is used topically to restore sun-damaged skin such as wrinkles and irregular pigmentation?

<p>Vitamin E</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Beta-Carotene do when partnered with Vitamin E and C to protect the skin against UV damage?

<p>Staining the skin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of preservatives in cosmetics?

<p>To prevent microbial contamination and rancidity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common plasticizer used in nail polishes?

<p>Glyceryl tribenzoate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of propellants in aerosol preparations?

<p>To maintain pressure and help expel contents</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following solvents is classified as POLAR?

<p>Ethanol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of UV filters in cosmetics?

<p>Protect against UV radiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a common sweetener found in cosmetics?

<p>Zinc oxide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What makes long-chain alcohols useful as emollients and emulsion stabilizers?

<p>They are saturated and more stable than unsaturated fatty acids.</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of moisturizers, what is the role of occlusives?

<p>Repel water and help retain moisture in the skin.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do humectants do in skincare preparations?

<p>Prevent drying by attracting and retaining water.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are fruit acids and alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) commonly used in skincare products?

<p>To reduce the appearance of fine lines and microwrinkles.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which substance is commonly employed for skin protection in cosmetic products?

<p>Dimethicone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of pigments and dyes in cosmetic products?

<p>To impart color to the product.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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Study Notes

Cosmetics and Skin Care

  • Cosmetics include non-leaching agents, antioxidants, peptides, and growth factors.
  • Examples: glutathione, Pharmaceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals.

Cosmetic Science

  • Cosmetic Science is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses concepts and principles from different fields of science.
  • Definition of Cosmetics: substances or preparations intended to be placed in contact with external parts of the human body to clean, perfume, change appearance, correct body odours, protect, or keep them in good condition.

Cosmetics vs. Drugs

  • Cosmetics are intended to affect the appearance of the body, while drugs are intended to treat or prevent diseases.
  • Example: Paraben-free products, which are linked to breast cancer and other endocrine disturbances.

pH Balanced

  • Claim to make consumers believe that the product will be less irritating.
  • Normal pH of the skin is acidic.
  • Probably based on product surveys and endorsement by dermatologists.

Chemistry of Cosmetic Consumer Products

Importance of Ingredient Selection

  • Surfactants: reduce the surface tension of water, form micelles, and have different types:
    • Cationic: conditioning for skin and hair, skin is negatively charged, and opposite attracts = coating.
    • Amphoteric: cleansing, bactericidal/bacteriostatic, softening, and foam building.
    • Nonionic: active due to alcohol or ethylene oxide head, emulsion stabilizing, conditioning, and solubilizing.

Uses of Surfactants in Cosmetics

  • Cleaning/detergency
  • Foam formation
  • Thickening
  • Emulsification

Emulsifiers

  • Stabilize emulsions, classified based on ionic charge:
    • Positively charged
    • Negatively charged
    • Non-ionic

Types of Surfactants in Cosmetics

  • Anionic: foam building and cleaning, may be irritating
  • Amphoteric: cleansing, bactericidal/bacteriostatic, softening, and foam building
  • Nonionic: emulsion stabilizing, conditioning, and solubilizing

Emollients and Moisturizers

  • Emollients: soften or soothe the skin, correct dryness and scaling, and replenish lipids.
  • Examples: oils, fatty acids, lanolin, cholesterol, and esters of fatty alcohols and fatty acids.
  • Moisturizers: add or retain moisture, generally more water-soluble than emollients.
  • Subclasses of Moisturizers:
    • Humectants: prevent drying of preparations, hygroscopic.
    • Emollients: replenish oils and lipids.
    • Occlusives: hydrophobic/water-repellent, keeps the moisture in.
    • Enhancers of the Skin Barrier: skin rejuvenators, enhance barrier function of the skin.

Waxes, Thickeners, and Active Ingredients

  • Waxes: long chain FA, solid at room temperature, has sealing properties.
  • Examples: beeswax, carnauba or candelilla waxes.
  • Thickeners: cellulose, carbopol, bentonite clays, carrageenan, and pectin.
  • Active Ingredients: act physiologically to lighten, tighten, and firm the skin.
  • Examples: fruit acids, alpha-hydroxy acids, aluminum chlorohydrate, salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and dimethicone.

Pigments and Dyes

  • Incorporated to impart color.
  • Types: face powders, fillers, pearls, organic pigments, and dyes.
  • Examples: kaolin, talc, silica, mica, oils, zinc stereate, and D&C vs. FD&C.

Preservatives and Antioxidants

  • Preservatives: prevent microbial contamination and rancidity.
  • Examples: parabens, phenoxyethanol, and antioxidants.
  • Antioxidants: prevent formations of free radicals in the skin.
  • Examples: vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and functional silicones.

Other Additives

  • Silicone blends: increase substantivity or durability.
  • Dimethicone/vinyldimethicone crosspolymers: adds viscosity and provides a dry, powdery feel.
  • Functional silicones: made to adjust hydrophilicity, rheologic properties, and compatibility to organic compounds.
  • pH buffers: match the formulation's pH with that of the application surface.
  • Examples: citric acid, lactic acid, sodium hydroxide, and triethanolamine.
  • Plasticizers: added to films to soften and impart flexibility.
  • Examples: camphor, castor oil, and glyceryl tribenzoate.
  • Propellants: added to aerosol preparations to maintain pressure and help expel contents.
  • Examples: isopentane, butane, sobutane, and propane.
  • Solvents: dissolve components, provide a vehicle, or contribute to texture.
  • Examples: polar, semi-polar, and non-polar solvents.

Physical Absorption

  • UVA and UVB filters.
  • Examples: PABA derivatives, cinnamates, salicylates, benzophenones, avobenzone, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide.

Vitamins and Skin Care

  • Vitamins: antioxidants, skin protectants, and skin rejuvenators.
  • Examples: vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B6, and biotin.
  • Vitamin E: non-enzymatic antioxidant, stabilizes biological membranes, and topical application for sun-damaged skin.
  • Vitamin C: water-soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant, protects from UVB damage, and stimulates collagen formation.
  • Vitamin A: stimulates cell proliferation and cell renewal, increases collagen content, and increases elasticity and barrier function of the skin.
  • Biotin: good for nails and hair due to its effect on keratinization.
  • Vitamin D: UV barrier.
  • Vitamin B6: for decreasing sebum production.
  • Beta-Carotene: partnered with vitamin E and C to protect the skin against UV damage.

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