Embedded Systems Basics

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What is the main idea behind general AI?

To make a system that can think like a human by its own

What is the current status of general AI systems?

Still under research and development

What is Super AI?

A type of general AI that is still a hypothetical concept

What is a characteristic of strong AI?

Ability to think and reason

What is an example of a reactive machine?

Google's AlphaGo

What is a characteristic of limited memory machines?

Ability to store past experiences or data for a short period of time

What is an example of a limited memory system?

Self-driving cars

What is the key difference between general AI and Super AI?

Super AI is hypothetical, while general AI is already developed

What is the primary focus of the Computational model?

Reflecting the 'how' of the results obtained

What is the main difference between the GPS and ELIZA?

GPS focuses on the reasoning process, whereas ELIZA focuses on behavior

What is the name of the script used in ELIZA?


What is the primary goal of the Behaviorist approach?

To produce human-like behavior

What is the name of the person who coded ELIZA?

Joel Weizenbaum

What are the core components of AI derived from?

Logic, cognition, and computation

What is a key difference between UDP and higher-level protocols?

Higher-level protocols provide guaranteed delivery, UDP does not

What is the purpose of port numbers in application layer protocols?

To enable process-to-process connections

What is a key characteristic of HTTP?

It is a stateless protocol

What is the primary purpose of COAP?

For machine-to-machine applications in constrained environments

What is a key difference between COAP and HTTP?

COAP is used for machine-to-machine applications, HTTP is used for human interactions

What is the purpose of URIs in HTTP?

To identify HTTP resources

What is a characteristic of the request-response model used in HTTP?

A client sends requests to a server using HTTP commands

What is the relationship between COAP and HTTP?

COAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP

What is the term used to describe a module that contains few or all the peripherals inside it?

System On Chip

In which of the following domains are embedded systems used?

Consumer electronics and home automation

What is the primary function of an ECG machine?

To monitor the heartbeat of a patient

What is the purpose of data collection in an embedded system?

To analyze and manipulate data

What is the term used to describe the transmission of data through wireless media such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi?

Wireless communication

What is the primary function of data processing in an embedded system?

To analyze and manipulate data

What is the term used to describe the data collected from the outside world using sensors?


What is the purpose of an embedded system in a banking application?

To process transactions and store data

What is the primary function of facial recognition software used by the police?

To recognize the face of a criminal with a stored portrait made by a forensic artist

What is an advantage of speech recognition systems?

They can handle different accents and slang words

What is the primary function of handwriting recognition software?

To recognize the shapes of letters and convert handwritten text into editable text

What enables intelligent robots to perform tasks given by humans?

Their efficient processors, multiple sensors, and huge memory

What is the primary goal of machine learning?

To recognize and understand input data and make wise decisions based on the supplied data

What is a challenge in machine learning?

Catering to all possible inputs and making decisions based on them

What is used to develop machine learning algorithms?

The principles of statistics, probability theory, logic, combinatorial optimization, search, reinforcement learning, and control theory

What is a key feature of intelligent robots?

Their ability to learn from their mistakes and adapt to new environments

Study Notes

Cognitive Computing

  • The Computational model should reflect “how” results were obtained, not just producing human-like behavior.
  • GPS (General Problem Solver) aims to produce a sequence of steps of the reasoning process similar to a person solving the same task.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • The core components of AI are derived from logic, cognition, and computation, including knowledge, reasoning, search, natural language processing, and vision.
  • General AI aims to make a system that can think like a human by itself, but currently, no such system exists that can perform tasks as perfectly as a human.
  • Researchers are focused on developing machines with General AI, but it requires significant efforts and time.

Types of AI

  • Super AI: A hypothetical concept where machines surpass human intelligence, performing tasks better than humans with cognitive properties like thinking, reasoning, solving puzzles, making judgments, planning, learning, and communicating.
  • Type 1: Reactive Machines (e.g., IBM's Deep Blue, Google's AlphaGo) - purely reactive, do not store memories, and only focus on current scenarios.
  • Type 2: Limited Memory Machines (e.g., self-driving cars) - store past experiences or data for a short period, using stored data for a limited time.

Machine Learning and Deep Learning

  • Machine learning is a branch of science that deals with programming systems to automatically learn and improve with experience.
  • It is difficult to cater to all decisions based on all possible inputs, so algorithms are developed to build knowledge from specific data and past experience.

Embedded Systems

  • Embedded systems are used in various domains, including consumer electronics, home automation, telecommunications, automotive industries, healthcare, control and instrumentation, and banking applications.
  • Purpose of embedded systems: data collection, storage, representation, communication, processing, and monitoring performance.

Communication Protocols

  • Application Layer Protocols define how applications interface with lower layer protocols to send data over the network.
  • Examples of application layer protocols include HTTP, COAP, and others.
  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) forms the foundation of the World Wide Web, using a request-response model where clients send requests to servers using HTTP commands.
  • COAP (Constrained Application Protocol) is designed for machine-to-machine applications, running on top of UDP, and is used in constrained environments with constrained devices and networks.

Learn about the fundamentals of embedded systems, including System on Chip (SOC) and their applications in various domains such as consumer electronics, telecommunication, and healthcare.

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