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CH 1 SUM: The Chemistry of Life

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232 Questions

What are pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means?

Elements

What is the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element?

Atom

Which bond allows atoms to form molecules?

Covalent bond

Which of the following is true about compounds and molecules?

All compounds are molecules.

Which element is NOT commonly found in living organisms?

Zinc

In the context of chemistry, what defines an atom's unique characteristics?

Atomic structure

What is the role of Vitamin A in the body?

Crucial for visual health and immune function

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to night blindness?

Vitamin A

What is a source of Vitamin C?

Citrus fruits like oranges

Which vitamin deficiency can cause scurvy?

Vitamin C

What is the main role of Vitamin E in the body?

Functions as an antioxidant

Which vitamin is essential for bone and teeth mineralization?

Vitamin D

What is the main goal of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?

Provide guidelines for nutrient intake to prevent deficiency diseases

Which class of organic compounds can be identified through a Starch test with iodine?

Carbohydrates

What is the main purpose of listing nutrient contents on food packages?

To help consumers make informed dietary choices

How is the energy content of a food item calculated?

By multiplying the weight of each macronutrient by the number of calories it provides per gram

What is the main characteristic of a balanced diet?

Having a variety of food types in appropriate quantities and proportions

Which of the following can lead to malnutrition?

Not eating enough food

Where can iron be sourced from according to the text?

Spinach

What is a common disease that can result from malnutrition?

Kwashiorkor

Which macronutrient serves as the body's main energy source?

Carbohydrates

What is essential for bone health and can be obtained from dairy products and fortified cereals?

Calcium

Which of the following nutrients is essential for oxygen transport in the human body?

Iron

Which organic compound is primarily involved in energy storage in plants?

Carbohydrates

Which of the following is a common environmental issue caused by the overuse of inorganic fertilisers?

Eutrophication

Which type of lipid is typically found in plants and is liquid at room temperature?

Unsaturated fats

Which type of organic compound is composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds?

Proteins

Which of the following nutrients is essential for chlorophyll production in plants?

Iron

Which organic compound is responsible for storing the genetic blueprint for an organism?

DNA

Which of the following is a recommended practice to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of fertiliser use?

Using natural fertilisers

What are the primary organic compounds that constitute living organisms?

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

What is the percentage composition of water in humans?

65%

Which of the following is an example of an inorganic compound?

Sodium chloride

What is the role of water in temperature regulation?

Water absorbs and releases heat slowly

Which of the following is not a primary function of water?

Photosynthesis

Which of the following is a macro-element required by humans and animals?

Calcium

What is the primary role of minerals in living organisms?

To perform critical metabolic functions

Which of the following is an organic compound?

Fats

What is the main role of carbohydrates in the body?

Long-term energy storage

Where can Vitamin C be primarily sourced from?

Citrus fruits and bell peppers

Which nutrient is essential for blood health and can be found in red meat and spinach?

Iron

What is the primary function of Vitamin A in the body?

Vision and immune function

In terms of caloric content, which macronutrient provides the highest energy per gram?

Fats

What can an unbalanced diet potentially lead to?

Obesity and malnutrition

Which nutrient is crucial for muscle repair and growth?

Protein

Which of the following is NOT a common element essential to life?

Silicon (Si)

Which type of bond allows atoms to form molecules?

Covalent bond

Which of the following is an example of a compound composed of two different elements?

CO2

Which of the following is a characteristic of atoms that defines their unique properties?

Number of protons in the nucleus

Which of the following is NOT a category of compounds?

Hybrid compounds

Which of the following is NOT a common macro-element required by humans and animals?

Silicon (Si)

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in living organisms?

Storing genetic information

Which of the following is NOT a property of molecules?

Retaining the properties of the element

Which of the following organic compounds is not primarily involved in energy storage?

Nucleic acids

What percentage of the human body is composed of mineral salts?

1%

Which of the following properties of water does NOT support its role as a 'universal solvent'?

High heat capacity

Which of the following is NOT a macro-element required by humans and animals?

Vitamin C

Which of the following is NOT a function of minerals in living organisms?

Energy storage

What is the percentage composition of carbohydrates in humans, as mentioned in the text?

5%

Which of the following organic compounds is composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds?

Proteins

What is the role of water in supporting structural integrity in animals and plants?

Both A and B

What is the primary role of micro-elements in the human body?

They are vital for functions such as oxygen transport and thyroid hormone production.

What is the main environmental issue caused by the overuse of inorganic fertilisers?

Eutrophication

Which type of organic compound is composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds?

Proteins

Which of the following is NOT a primary function of carbohydrates?

DNA replication

Which of the following is a recommended practice to reduce the negative environmental impacts of fertiliser use?

Adopting precise application techniques

Which of the following is a saturated fat?

Butter

What is the role of Vitamin E in the body?

It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage.

What is the main role of minerals in living organisms?

They are essential for functions such as oxygen transport and thyroid hormone production.

Which vitamin is crucial for visual health and immune function?

Vitamin A

Which test is used to identify the presence of proteins in organic compounds?

Protein tests with Biuret and Millon’s reagents

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to pellagra, causing skin lesions, gastrointestinal issues, and psychological disturbances?

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Which organic compound can be identified through a grease-spot test?

Lipids

What is the primary role of Vitamin E in the human body?

Acting as an antioxidant

Which vitamin deficiency can cause impaired wound healing and bleeding gums?

Vitamin C deficiency

Which vitamin is essential for neurotransmitter synthesis and red blood cell production?

All of the above

Which chemical test is used to identify the presence of starch in organic compounds?

Starch test with iodine

What is the primary function of lipids in living organisms?

Energy storage

Which of the following elements is essential for thyroid hormone production?

Iron

What is a primary role of proteins in living organisms?

Structural support

Which vitamin is crucial for genetic information storage and processing?

Vitamin A

Which of the following organic compounds is primarily involved in energy provision through cellular respiration?

Carbohydrates

Where can iodine, an essential micro-element, be sourced from according to the text?

Dairy products

What environmental issue can result from the overuse of inorganic fertilisers?

Eutrophication

Which vitamin is crucial for visual health and immune function?

Vitamin B

What is the primary role of Vitamin C in the body?

Supports iron metabolism and immune function

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to a condition characterized by poor vision in low light?

Vitamin A

What deficiency disease can result from inadequate Vitamin D intake in children?

Rickets

What is the main role of Vitamin E in the body?

Functions as an antioxidant

Which vitamin is essential for a wide range of metabolic processes including carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism?

Vitamin B Complex

What is the deficiency disease associated with Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency?

Beriberi

Where can Vitamin D primarily be sourced from according to the text?

Egg yolk and liver

Which element is essential for oxygen transport in the human body?

Iron (Fe)

Which element is not commonly found in living organisms?

Aluminum (Al)

Which of the following is a primary function of carbohydrates?

Energy production

Which of the following is NOT a common environmental issue caused by the overuse of inorganic fertilizers?

Global warming

Which type of lipid is typically found in plants and is liquid at room temperature?

Unsaturated fat

Which of the following elements is NOT commonly found in proteins?

Iron (Fe)

Which vitamin is essential for neurotransmitter synthesis and red blood cell production?

Vitamin B12

Which organic compound can be identified through a grease-spot test?

Lipids

What is the primary function of proteins in living organisms?

Building cellular structures, acting as enzymes, and numerous other functions

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in living organisms?

Storage of genetic information

What is the primary role of macro-elements in the human body?

Critical for structural integrity, fluid balance, and nerve transmission

Which of the following is an inorganic compound?

Sodium Chloride

What is the role of minerals in human and plant nutrition?

Required by living organisms to perform critical metabolic functions

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in plants?

Nutrient synthesis

What is the main characteristic of organic compounds?

Typically bonded to hydrogen (C-H bonds)

What is the primary role of micro-elements in the human body?

Essential for cellular biochemistry

What is the primary role of Vitamin C in the body?

Immune system support

What is the percentage composition of fats in humans, according to the RDA?

40%

Which micronutrient is essential for blood health and can be obtained from red meat and spinach?

Iron

Which macronutrient provides about 4 calories per gram?

Protein

Which vitamin is crucial for chlorophyll production in plants?

Vitamin A

What is the RDA value for Vitamin A for males aged 19-30 years?

900 micrograms

Which of the following is NOT a function of minerals in living organisms?

Providing energy for cellular functions

What is the recommended daily intake of proteins for females aged 19-30 years?

46 g

What is the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element?

Atom

Which of the following elements is commonly found in living organisms?

Phosphorus (P)

What do atoms form when they bond together through covalent bonds?

Molecules

Which category do compounds fall into based on their composition?

Organic

Which of the following is true about organic compounds?

They only contain Carbon and Hydrogen

Inorganic compounds are typically characterized by the absence of which element?

Carbon (C)

What determines an atom's unique characteristics?

Atomic structure including electrons and protons

What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?

Providing long-term energy storage

What is the primary difference between molecules and compounds?

Molecules consist of a single element, compounds consist of different elements.

What is the primary role of minerals in living organisms?

Facilitating nerve impulse transmission

Which macronutrient provides about 4 calories per gram?

Carbohydrates

What is a primary role of proteins in living organisms?

Aiding in muscle repair and growth

What vitamin deficiency can lead to diseases like kwashiorkor or anorexia?

Vitamin A deficiency

Which mineral is necessary for bone health and can be sourced from dairy products?

Calcium

What is the main goal of listing nutrient contents on food packages by food manufacturers?

To allow consumers to compare their intake with RDA values

Which macronutrient provides about 9 calories per gram?

Fats

Which organic compound is primarily responsible for energy storage in animals?

Carbohydrates

Which of the following is NOT a function of lipids in living organisms?

Structural support

Which micro-element is essential for chlorophyll production in plants?

Manganese

Which of the following is NOT a recommended practice to reduce the negative environmental impacts of fertiliser use?

Overusing inorganic fertilisers

Which macronutrient is vital for enzyme activation in plants?

Phosphorus

Which organic compound is composed of nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds?

Nucleic acids

Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins in living organisms?

Energy storage

Which micronutrient is essential for thyroid hormone production in humans?

Iodine

Which of the following organic compounds is primarily involved in the transmission of genetic information?

Nucleic acids

Which of the following is a characteristic of an inorganic compound?

Simple chemical structure without carbon-hydrogen bonds

Which of the following is a function of water in plants?

Structural support through turgor pressure

Which of the following is a role of minerals in living organisms?

Critical for structural integrity and nerve transmission

Which of the following organic compounds is primarily involved in energy storage in plants?

Carbohydrates

Which of the following is a function of water in humans?

Cools the body during hot conditions

Which of the following is a function of minerals in living organisms?

Acting as enzymes

Which of the following is an example of an inorganic compound?

Sodium chloride

Which vitamin is crucial for red blood cell production?

Vitamin B Complex

Which test is used to identify the presence of fats and oils?

Ether or grease-spot tests

Which deficiency disease is characterized by poor vision in low light?

Night blindness

Which vitamin functions as a coenzyme in many metabolic processes and is found in green leafy vegetables?

Vitamin B Complex

Which nutrient intake values are established by nutritionists to prevent deficiency diseases in an otherwise healthy population?

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Which vitamin is essential for bone and teeth mineralization, and can be sourced from dairy products and synthesized in the skin when exposed to sunlight?

Vitamin D

Which vitamin is crucial for visual health and immune function, and can be sourced from fish oil, dairy products, and yellow vegetables like carrots?

Vitamin A

Which organic compound can be identified through a blue-black color change when tested with iodine?

Starch

What is the primary function of lipids in living organisms?

Energy storage

Which of the following is true about nucleic acids?

DNA translates genetic information into proteins.

What is the main difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

Physical state at room temperature

Which statement accurately describes the role of proteins?

Proteins are involved in structural support and enzyme catalysis.

What is the primary function of carbohydrates in plants?

Energy storage

What is the total caloric content of a food item containing 10 grams of protein, 5 grams of carbohydrates, and 8 grams of fat?

158 kcal

Which of the following elements is NOT classified as a micro-element for plants?

Phosphorus

Which nutrient is crucial for blood health and can be sourced from red meat and spinach?

Iron

Which of the following is a common negative impact of excessive inorganic fertiliser use?

Eutrophication of water bodies

For adults aged 19-30, what is the recommended daily intake of fat in grams?

70g

What can overuse of organic fertilizers lead to in agricultural practices?

Soil depletion

Which nutrient serves as the body's main energy source?

Carbohydrates

What deficiency disease can result from malnutrition and is characterized by protein deficiency?

Kwashiorkor

What nutrient is essential for muscle repair and growth and can be sourced from meats and legumes?

Protein

Which mineral, crucial for bone health, is necessary for both genders and can be obtained from dairy products and fortified cereals?

Calcium

What is the RDA value for Vitamin C for adults aged 19-30 years?

75 mg

What is the primary role of micro-elements in the human body?

Regulation of enzyme function and metabolic processes

Which of the following nutrients is essential for chlorophyll production in plants?

Magnesium

What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?

Energy storage and structural functions

Which test is used to identify the presence of proteins in organic compounds?

Biuret test

Which vitamin is essential for neurotransmitter synthesis and red blood cell production?

Vitamin B12

Which of the following is NOT a function of minerals in living organisms?

Facilitating oxygen transport and DNA synthesis

Which of the following nutrients is essential for thyroid hormone production in humans?

Iodine

What is the primary role of macro-elements in the human body?

Supporting structural integrity and energy production

Which of the following elements is essential for the production of thyroid hormones?

Iodine (I)

Which of the following is the primary function of micro-elements in the human body?

Facilitating enzymatic reactions

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of atoms that defines their unique properties?

The atomic mass

Which of the following statements about compounds is NOT true?

All molecules are compounds

Which of the following elements is NOT commonly found in living organisms?

Silicon (Si)

Which of the following is an example of an inorganic compound?

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Which of the following organic compounds is primarily involved in energy provision through cellular respiration?

Carbohydrates

Which micro-element is essential for chlorophyll production in plants?

Magnesium (Mg)

What is a potential deficiency disease associated with a lack of Vitamin A intake?

Night blindness

Which vitamin is crucial for supporting iron metabolism and collagen formation in the body?

Vitamin C

What deficiency disease can result from inadequate Vitamin D intake in children?

Rickets

Which vitamin functions as an antioxidant protecting cells from oxidative stress?

Vitamin E

Which vitamin is essential for a wide range of metabolic processes including carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism?

Vitamin B Complex

What is the potential deficiency disease associated with Vitamin C?

Scurvy

What is the primary role of Vitamin A in the body?

Supports visual health and immune function

Which of the following deficiency diseases can result from a lack of Vitamin B3?

Pellagra

What is the primary function of Vitamin D in the human body?

Promotes bone and teeth mineralization

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to a depressed immune system and poor nerve conduction?

Vitamin E

What is the primary purpose of conducting Lipid tests using ether or grease-spot tests?

To identify fats and oils

Which of the following deficiency diseases can be caused by inadequate Vitamin C intake?

Scurvy

What is the primary difference between a compound and a molecule?

The composition of elements

Which element is NOT categorized as an essential micro-element for life in the text?

Calcium

In the context of atoms, what defines an element's unique characteristics?

The arrangement of electrons around the nucleus

Which type of bond is responsible for atoms bonding together to form molecules?

Covalent bonds

Why are compounds categorized into organic and inorganic based on their composition?

To distinguish between living and non-living matter

Which element plays a crucial role in oxygen transport in the human body?

Iron

What defines a molecule as an organic compound?

The presence of carbon-hydrogen bonds

1.1

1.3

Which organic compound is primarily responsible for genetic information storage and processing?

Nucleic Acids

Where can iron primarily be sourced from according to the text?

Soil

Which of the following nutrients is NOT essential for thyroid hormone production in humans?

Calcium

What is the primary role of lipids in living organisms?

Energy storage

Which type of organic compound consists of amino acids linked by peptide bonds?

Proteins

Where can potassium primarily be sourced from according to the text?

Soil

Which of the following nutrients is NOT a micro-element needed in smaller quantities but essential for various functions?

Potassium

What is the main difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats based on their physical state?

Saturated fats are solid at room temperature, unsaturated fats are liquid.

What is a characteristic that distinguishes inorganic compounds from organic compounds?

Simple chemical structures

Why is water often referred to as the 'universal solvent'?

Capacity to dissolve more substances than any other liquid

Which element in the human body is required in larger quantities and is critical for fluid balance?

Sodium

What role does water play in supporting plant and animal structural integrity?

Turgor pressure maintenance

Why is carbon dioxide considered an inorganic compound despite containing carbon?

Lacks hydrogen and is linked to oxygen

Which compound is essential for the transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products in living organisms?

Water

What significant role does water play in maintaining stable internal temperatures in organisms?

Cooling through sweating

Which property of water makes it crucial for maintaining structural integrity in animals and plants?

Provision of turgor pressure

What is the total caloric content of a food item that contains 10 grams of protein, 20 grams of carbohydrates, and 30 grams of fat?

450 kcal

Which of the following nutrients has the highest daily RDA value for males aged 19-30 years?

Fat

What would be the potential health outcome if a person consumed less than the RDA value of Vitamin C for an extended period of time?

Scurvy

Which of the following food types would provide the highest caloric content per gram due to its macronutrient composition?

Olive oil

If a person's diet does not include enough iron, which of the following health conditions could they potentially develop?

Anemia

What is the RDA value for protein for males aged 19-30 years?

56 g

If a person's diet does not include enough Vitamin A, which of the following health conditions could they potentially develop?

Night blindness

What is the RDA value for Calcium for both genders aged 19-30 years?

1000 mg

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