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# Electrical Circuits Laboratory 2: Experiment 1 AC Signals

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@InvigoratingVulture7891

### What is the term used to describe the current waveform in relation to the voltage waveform when the current waveform is behind the voltage waveform?

• Out-of-phase
• In-phase
• Lagging (correct)
• ### What is the expression for the current waveform when the current waveform is lagging behind the voltage waveform?

• i(t) = I_m sin(ωt - Ø) (correct)
• i(t) = V_m sin(ωt + Ø)
• i(t) = I_m sin(ωt + Ø)
• i(t) = V_m sin(ωt - Ø)
• ### What is the term used to describe the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms of the same frequency plotted onto the same reference axis?

• Time difference
• Amplitude difference
• Phase difference (correct)
• Frequency difference
• ### What is the procedure to determine the quantities of the signal shown on the oscilloscope screen?

<p>From the signal shown on the oscilloscope screen determine the quantities listed in Error!Reference source not found.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the expression for the voltage waveform?

<p>v(t) = V_m sin(ωt)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when the current waveform is leading the voltage waveform?

<p>The current waveform reaches its maximum peak and zero values at some time before the voltage waveform.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of adjusting the voltage and time scales of the oscilloscope?

<p>To display one cycle of the sinusoidal waveform.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term used to describe the phase angle of a sine wave when the current waveform is lagging behind the voltage waveform?

<p>Lagging phase angle</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between the voltage and current waveforms when they have a lagging phase difference?

<p>The current waveform is behind the voltage waveform.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the expression for the current waveform when the current waveform is leading the voltage waveform?

<p>i(t) = I_m sin(ωt + Ø)</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Properties of AC Signals

• Objective: To study the basic properties of Alternating Current (AC) waveforms.

### Components

• Oscilloscope: Used to display and analyze electrical signals, enabling the study of amplitude, period, frequency, and phase angle.
• Function Generator: Generates input functions for the circuit, capable of producing sinewaves, square waves, triangular waves, and sawtooth waves.

### Types of AC Waveforms

• Sine wave
• Square wave
• Triangular wave
• Sawtooth wave

### AC Signal Characteristics

• Alternating current changes its direction of flow continuously, unlike direct current (DC).
• Basic parameters of AC waveforms include:
• Peak amplitude
• Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value
• Period
• Frequency

### Sinusoidal Waveform

• Mathematically represented by v(t) = vp sin(ω0 t + θv) and i(t) = ip sin(ω0 t + θi)
• Peak amplitude (vp) and RMS value (Vrms) are related by Vrms = 0.707Vp
• Angular frequency (ω0) is related to frequency (f) by ω0 = 2πf

### Phase Difference

• Phase angle (θ) can be used to describe the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms.
• Current can "lag" or "lead" voltage by a phase angle.
• Phase difference can be represented by the equation A(t) = Amax sin(ωt ± Ø)

### Phase Relationship

• Two waveforms can be "in-phase" or have a phase difference.
• Current waveform can "lag" or "lead" voltage waveform by a phase angle.

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## Description

This experiment aims to study the basic properties of Alternating Current (AC) waveforms using an oscilloscope. Learn about AC signals and their characteristics.

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