## Questions and Answers

What is the term used to describe the current waveform in relation to the voltage waveform when the current waveform is behind the voltage waveform?

What is the expression for the current waveform when the current waveform is lagging behind the voltage waveform?

What is the term used to describe the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms of the same frequency plotted onto the same reference axis?

What is the procedure to determine the quantities of the signal shown on the oscilloscope screen?

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What is the expression for the voltage waveform?

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What happens when the current waveform is leading the voltage waveform?

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What is the purpose of adjusting the voltage and time scales of the oscilloscope?

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What is the term used to describe the phase angle of a sine wave when the current waveform is lagging behind the voltage waveform?

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What is the relationship between the voltage and current waveforms when they have a lagging phase difference?

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What is the expression for the current waveform when the current waveform is leading the voltage waveform?

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## Study Notes

### Properties of AC Signals

- Objective: To study the basic properties of Alternating Current (AC) waveforms.

### Components

- Oscilloscope: Used to display and analyze electrical signals, enabling the study of amplitude, period, frequency, and phase angle.
- Function Generator: Generates input functions for the circuit, capable of producing sinewaves, square waves, triangular waves, and sawtooth waves.

### Types of AC Waveforms

- Sine wave
- Square wave
- Triangular wave
- Sawtooth wave

### AC Signal Characteristics

- Alternating current changes its direction of flow continuously, unlike direct current (DC).
- Basic parameters of AC waveforms include:
- Peak amplitude
- Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value
- Period
- Frequency

### Sinusoidal Waveform

- Mathematically represented by v(t) = vp sin(ω0 t + θv) and i(t) = ip sin(ω0 t + θi)
- Peak amplitude (vp) and RMS value (Vrms) are related by Vrms = 0.707Vp
- Angular frequency (ω0) is related to frequency (f) by ω0 = 2πf

### Phase Difference

- Phase angle (θ) can be used to describe the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms.
- Current can "lag" or "lead" voltage by a phase angle.
- Phase difference can be represented by the equation A(t) = Amax sin(ωt ± Ø)

### Phase Relationship

- Two waveforms can be "in-phase" or have a phase difference.
- Current waveform can "lag" or "lead" voltage waveform by a phase angle.

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## Description

This experiment aims to study the basic properties of Alternating Current (AC) waveforms using an oscilloscope. Learn about AC signals and their characteristics.