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Applied Communications Spring 2024 Final (open notes)

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23 Questions

What is the tone of a story?

The attitude the writer displays towards their subject or theme

What is an allegory in literature?

A story that uses characters and events to convey a deeper hidden meaning

What is the purpose of foreshadowing in a story?

To create a suspenseful atmosphere and motivate the reader to continue reading

What is situational irony?

When there is a contrast between expectations and reality

What is the main purpose of a flashback in a story?

To reveal something that happened before the present moment in the narration

What is the relationship between tone and style in literature?

Tone is the attitude the writer displays towards their subject or theme, while style is the writer's unique voice

What is the purpose of satire in literature?

To inform and sometimes contain a call to action

What is the role of a protagonist in a story?

To face a conflict and overcome it

What is a dynamic character?

A character who changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a conflict or facing a crisis

What is the function of irony in literature?

To express the opposite of the literal meaning of words

What is the main difference between direct and indirect characterization?

Direct characterization explicitly tells the reader about a character's personality, while indirect characterization shows it through their actions.

What is the purpose of setting in a story?

To create a background for the story and influence the mood.

What is the typical structure of a plot?

Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution.

What is the main difference between first person and third person limited narrative perspectives?

First person narrators are limited to their own thoughts, while third person limited narrators know multiple characters' thoughts.

What is the primary function of the climax in a story?

To be the most exciting part of the story and often a turning point.

What is the theme of a literary work?

The author's central message about a topic or subject.

What is the purpose of the resolution in a story?

To tie up loose ends and provide a conclusion.

What is the element of a story that refers to the physical location and time of the action?


What is the underlying message or idea the writer expresses through the story?


Who performs the actions and speaks the dialogue of a story?


What is the element of a story that involves a problem or challenge that drives the story’s action?


What is the element of a story that relates to the events that happen?


What aspect of a story determines who is telling the story?

Point of View

Study Notes

Literary Devices

  • Figurative language is a powerful tool used to create vivid imagery through words.
  • Allegory: a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, often moral or political.
  • Allusion: a reference to a person, place, event, or work of art that is outside the text itself.
  • Flashback: a scene that takes the reader back in time from the present moment in the narration.
  • Foreshadowing: a hint or clue that suggests events that will occur later in the story.
  • Irony: a contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
  • Juxtaposition: the placement of two or more elements side by side to create a comparison or contrast.
  • Paradox: a statement or situation that seems contradictory or absurd, but may actually be true or have some truth to it.

Point of View (POV)

  • The perspective from which a story is told.
  • First-person POV: the narrator is a character within the story.
  • Second-person POV: the narrator addresses the reader directly.
  • Third-person POV: an external narrator tells the story.


  • The use of humor to mock or ridicule a person, idea, or institution.
  • Often used to expose or criticize a particular concept or issue.
  • Can be used to entertain, inform, or even call to action.


  • The use of objects, colors, or other elements to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
  • Adds layers of meaning to a work, allowing readers to interpret it at different levels.


  • Major characters: vital to the development and resolution of the plot.
  • Minor characters: less central, but serve to complement the major characters.
  • Protagonist: the central character(s) in the story.
  • Antagonist: the character(s) who stands in opposition to the protagonist.
  • Dynamic characters: change over time.
  • Static characters: do not change over time.
  • Round characters: complex personalities with multiple traits.
  • Flat characters: one-dimensional personalities with a single trait.
  • Stock characters: stereotypical characters.


  • The physical location and time period in which the story takes place.
  • Can create the background, mood, and context for the story.
  • Can influence character actions and development.


  • Typically consists of five parts: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
  • Exposition: introduction of characters, setting, and inciting incidents.
  • Rising action: events leading up to the main action.
  • Climax: the most exciting or intense part of the story.
  • Falling action: events following the climax.
  • Resolution: the conclusion of the story, tying up loose ends.

Narrative Perspective

  • First-person narrator: a character within the story.
  • Second-person narrator: addresses the reader directly.
  • Third-person omniscient narrator: all-knowing, revealing thoughts and feelings of multiple characters.
  • Third-person objective narrator: describes characters' actions and dialogue, but not their thoughts or feelings.
  • Third-person limited narrator: reveals the thoughts and feelings of a single character.


  • The author's central message about a topic or subject.
  • Should be expressed in a full sentence, providing a general statement about life, human nature, or the human experience.
  • Not to be confused with a single word or topic.

Review the 5 primary elements of a story, including character, setting, plot, and more. Prepare for your ELA Spring 2024 Final exam with this comprehensive study guide.

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